Citrobacter species

Reference range:

- Citrobacter are Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, facultatively anerobic bacilli.

- Citrobacter fall within the Enterobacteriaceae family.

- Citrobacter is considered a commensal bacteria; however, depending on the clinical picture, it is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen.

- Citrobacter species are found in water, soil, food, and commonly in the human intestinal tract.

- Citrobacter infections can also be nosocomial.

- Although considered a commensal, some Citrobacter isolates have virulent toxins, such as Shiga-like toxins, heat-stable toxins, and cholera B toxin B subunit homologs.

- Citrobacter is most often asymptomatic but can cause diarrhea.

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