Insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 1 is a member of the family of structurally homologous proteins (= those with a common evolutionary origin) that specifically binds and modulates the activities of IGF-1 and IGF-2.
Serum levels of IGFBP-1 exhibit considerable diurnal variation (= the variations occur in response to circadian rhythms) with levels highest early in the morning and lowest in the evening. Serum IGFBP-1 levels are controlled by insulin with the postprandial increase (= after a meal) in insulin levels producing a four- to fivefold decrease in IGFBP-1 levels relative to fasting levels.
Ranke MB, Elmlinger M. Functional role of insulin-like growth factor binding proteins. Horm Res. 1997; 48(Suppl 4):9-15 (review). PubMed 9350439
Lee PD, Conover CA, Powell DR. Regulation and function of insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-1. Proc Soc Exp Biol Med. 1993 Oct; 204(1):4-29. PubMed 7690486
Hills FA, Gunn LK, Hardiman P, Thamaratnam S, Chard T. IGFBP-1 in the placenta, membranes and fetal circulation: Levels at term and preterm delivery. Early Hum Dev. 1996 Jan 5; 44(1):71-76. PubMed 8821897
Hills FA, English J, Chard T. Circulating levels of IGF-I and IGF-binding protein-1 throughout pregnancy: Relation to birthweight and maternal weight. J Endocrinol. 1996 Feb; 148(2):303-309. PubMed 8699144
Grobman WA, Kazer RR. Serum insulin, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 in women who develop pre-eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol. 2001 Apr; 97(4):521-526. PubMed 11275021
→ Type 2 diabetics tend to have low serum IGFBP-1 levels.
→ Low levels are observed in acromegaly, Cushing disease, and polycystic ovary syndrome.
→ IGFBP-1 levels have been shown to be elevated in type 1 diabetics and in patients with insulin resistance syndromes.
→ Patients with growth hormone deficiency tend to have elevated IGFBP-1 levels.
IGFBP-1 is the predominant IGF-binding protein in amniotic fluid and in fetal and maternal circulation. The levels are high in the fetus and newborn, but decline steadily until puberty. In a recent study of women in the second trimester of pregnancy, IGFBP-1 levels were higher in women who subsequently developed preëclampsia than in matched controls who did not develop the syndrome.
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