Estrone (E1) is a steroid, a weak estrogen, and a minor female sex hormone. Estrone is one of three major endogenous estrogens, the others being estradiol and estriol. Like the other estrogens, estrone is synthesized from cholesterol and secreted mainly from the gonads, though they can also be formed from adrenal androgens in adipose tissue. Estrone is primarily derived from metabolism of androstenedione in peripheral tissues, especially adipose tissues. Estrone can be converted into estradiol and serves mainly as a precursor or metabolic intermediate of estradiol. In addition, an increase in the ratio of estrone to estradiol may be useful in assessing menopause in women.
Reference Ranges for adults:
Males: 15-65 pg/mL
Premenopausal: 17-200 pg/mL
Postmenopausal: 7-40 pg/mL
- Coelingh Bennink HJT. Are all estrogens the same? Maturitas. 2004 Apr 15;47(4):269-275. PubMed 15063479
- Kuhl H. Pharmacology of estrogens and progestogens: influence of different routes of administration. Climacteric. 2005 Aug;8 Suppl 1:3-63. PubMed 16112947
- Testosterone supplementation
- Excessive aromatase activity (may be associated with obesity)
- DHEA supplementation
- Testicular, adrenal or hepatic tumors (may be associated with gynecomastia)
- Hepatic cirrhosis
Symptoms of high estrogen in men include:
- Infertility. Estrogen is partly responsible for creating healthy sperm. When estrogen levels are high, sperm levels may fall and lead to fertility issues.
- Gynecomastia. Estrogen may stimulate breast tissue growth. Men with too much estrogen may develop gynecomastia, a condition which leads to larger breasts.
- Erectile dysfunction (ED). Men with high levels of estrogen may have difficulty getting or maintaining an erection.
- Higher estrone levels are associated with an increased risk of incident type 2 diabetes.
- Estrone is a more sensitive marker of diabetes risk than is estradiol.
To help lower your estrogen levels, your doctor might recommend changes to your eating habits. For example, they might encourage you to eat a low-fat and high-fiber diet that includes:
- cruciferous vegetables
- red grapes
- flax seeds
- green tea
Your doctor might also encourage you to lose excess weight and/or prescribe medication or recommend surgery.
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