3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is a normal metabolic product of dietary phenols and flavonoids. Common foods such as teas, fruits, (orange juice) supplements, particularly quercetin and grape seed extract contribute much of what is typically found in the urine. A result of action by the colonic bacterial flora, it is a major metabolite, with up to 35% of ingested quercetin rutinosides resulting in 3HPAA. 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is a rutin metabolite and an antioxidant. It has a protective biological activity in human. It is a substrate of enzyme 4-hydroxyphenylacetate 3-monooxygenase in the pathway tyrosine metabolism. 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid is found to be associated with phenylketonuria, which is an inborn error of metabolism. It is also a marker of gut Clostridium species.
High levels of 3-HPAA in the urine reflect an increased intake of food compounds such as teas, fruits, (orange juice) supplements, particularly quercetin and grape seed extract or possibly a colonic flora population that results in enhanced phenol and flavonoid metabolism.
Higher levels are associated with higher levels of Clostridia. Clostridia bacteria are commonly found in the gut-microbiome. Overuse of antibiotics can cause imbalance of the gut microbiome, leading to overgrowth of the species Clostridioides difficile causing a serious infection. Effects of this infection can lead to severe diarrhea and also the increase in severity of many bowel related diseases is also increased as a results of the infection. Other Clostridia bacteria in the gut have been linked to brain connectivity and healthy function.
3-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid can also be found in Klebsiella. Klebsiella organisms can lead to a wide range of disease states, notably pneumonia, urinary tract infections, sepsis, meningitis, diarrhea, and soft tissue infections.
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