A ketone body produced as by-product of fatty acids oxidation for energy. High levels may occur in certain genetic disorders such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Slightly elevated 2- hydroxybutyric acid in urine has little clinical significance.
Elevated 2-hydroxybutyric acid is a byproduct of the breakdown of the sulfur amino acid metabolite, cystathionine, which may be formed in excess during oxidative stress or when toxic exposures increase the need for detoxi cation. When glutathione is depleted by excessive toxic exposure, pyroglutamic acid may also be elevated. May also be elevated due to certain genetic SNPs in the methylation pathway or de ciencies of methyl tetrahydrofolate, methyl B12, or betaine.
High levels may occur in certain genetic disorders such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Slightly elevated 2- hydroxybutyric acid in urine has little clinical significance.
The buildup of beta-hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA) is an indication that fats are not being processed ideally. It is a sign of possible ketosis. Often, higher levels of BHBA are seen in those who have H. pylori, or who do not have sufficient biotin and adenosyl B12 to process fats. Lack of pancreatic enzymes can also be a factor in high BHBA.
Certain diets may cause a greater tendency toward ketosis, such as the Specific Carbohydrate Diet or the Paleolithic Diet. A more balanced diet can be considered if these are factors in ketosis that do not resolve with supplement support.
Ketosis from carbohydrate unavailability (e.g fasting, diabetes strenuous exercise, ketogenic diet)
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