A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 2.8 mmol/mol creatinine.
A ketone body produced as by-product of fatty acids oxidation for energy. High levels may occur in certain genetic disorders such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Slightly elevated 2- hydroxybutyric acid in urine has little clinical significance.
Elevated 2-hydroxybutyric acid is a byproduct of the breakdown of the sulfur amino acid metabolite, cystathionine, which may be formed in excess during oxidative stress or when toxic exposures increase the need for detoxi cation. When glutathione is depleted by excessive toxic exposure, pyroglutamic acid may also be elevated. May also be elevated due to certain genetic SNPs in the methylation pathway or de ciencies of methyl tetrahydrofolate, methyl B12, or betaine.
High levels may occur in certain genetic disorders such as pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Slightly elevated 2- hydroxybutyric acid in urine has little clinical significance.
The buildup of beta-hydroxy-butyric acid (BHBA) is an indication that fats are not being processed ideally. It is a sign of possible ketosis. Often, higher levels of BHBA are seen in those who have H. pylori, or who do not have sufficient biotin and adenosyl B12 to process fats. Lack of pancreatic enzymes can also be a factor in high BHBA.
Certain diets may cause a greater tendency toward ketosis, such as the Specific Carbohydrate Diet or the Paleolithic Diet. A more balanced diet can be considered if these are factors in ketosis that do not resolve with supplement support.
Ketosis from carbohydrate unavailability (e.g fasting, diabetes strenuous exercise, ketogenic diet)
$15 per monthSelect this plan
$59 per yearSelect this plan
$250 single paymentSelect this plan
Health is not exactly rocket science. You just have to know what your body needs and doesn't need. Your medical tests contain that information. Upload them to our service and we’ll help you understand, organize, and act on them.Get Started
"I was really concerned about my lab results and my GP was not able to see me for another week. Through HealthMatters I was able to interpret my results instantly."
"I've been keeping all my lab results in a spreadsheet, covering approximately 20 years. The HealthMatters team helped me upload that info into the cloud. I can show this data to my family and doctors now easily."
"I had no idea what my lab results meant. Here I found all the biomarkers that I was looking for online. Finally, I have not only organized them all neatly in one place, but I am also grateful to be able to understand what they mean."