4-Hydroxyphenylacetate is a tyrosine metabolic product of certain Clostridia bacteria. Elevated levels are associated with Clostridia overgrowth, small intestinal bowel overgrowth (SIBO), or small bowel disease. May also indicate celiac disease.
For individuals with normal, healthy intestinal function, the compound p-Hydroxyphenylacetate should not appear as more than background concentrations in urine.
Measurement of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid excretion in urine is useful in screening for diseases of the small intestine associated with bacterial overgrowth.
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High 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid may be associated with small intestinal bacteria overgrowth (SIBO) due to its production by:
- C. difficile
- C. stricklandii
- C. lituseburense
- C. subterminale
- C. putrefaciens
- C. propionicum
C. difficile can be distinguished from the other species by its production of 4-cresol. No other Clostridia species produce 4-cresol.
Elevated values of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid are common in:
- Celiac disease
- Cystic fibrosis
- Jejuna web
- Transient lactose intolerance
- Giardia infection
- Ileal resection
- Ileo-colic intersusseception
- Projectile vomiting.
Elevations of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in celiac disease and cystic fibrosis are common enough to suggest that these Clostridia bacteria may play a role in these illnesses.
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2-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid, 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid, 3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 5-OH-indoleacetic Acid, a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE), a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid, a-Ketoadipic Acid, a-Ketoglutaric Acid (AKG), a-Ketoisocaproic Acid, a-Ketoisovaleric Acid, a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene), Adipic Acid, Arabinose, B-OH-B-Methylglutaric Acid (HMG), Benzoic Acid, Beta-OH-Butyric Acid (BHBA), Cis-Aconitic Acid, Citramalic Acid, Citric Acid, Dihydroxyphenylpropionic Acid (DHPPA), Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu), Glutaric Acid, Hippuric Acid, Homogentisic Acid, Homovanillic Acid, Indoleacetic Acid (IAA), Isocitric Acid, Isovalerylglycine, Kynurenic / Quinolinic Ratio, Kynurenic Acid, Lactic Acid, Malic Acid, Methylmalonic Acid, Orotic Acid, Phenylacetic Acid (PAA), Pyroglutamic Acid, Pyruvic Acid, Quinolinic Acid, Suberic Acid, Succinic Acid, Tartaric Acid, Vanilmandelic Acid, Xanthurenic Acid