Optimal Result: 0 - 20 Units.

Many studies have reported an increase in the proportion of potentially harmful Proteobacteria, especially of the Enterobacteriaceae family, in IBD patients. Therefore, it would appear that the host’s inflammatory response could be the trigger of gut microbiota imbalance, most likely caused by Enterobacteriaceae blooming, which leads to the persistence of IBD’s inflammatory state.


Morgan, X.C.; Tickle, T.L.; Sokol, H.; Gevers, D.; Devaney, K.L.; Ward, D.V.; Reyes, J.A.; Shah, S.A.; LeLeiko, N.; Snapper, S.B.; et al. Dysfunction of the Intestinal Microbiome in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Treatment. Genome Biol. 2012, 13, R79. [L]

Lupp, C.; Robertson, M.L.; Wickham, M.E.; Sekirov, I.; Champion, O.L.; Gaynor, E.C.; Finlay, B.B. Host-Mediated Inflammation Disrupts the Intestinal Microbiota and Promotes the Overgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae. Cell Host Microbe 2007, 2, 204. [L]

Gophna, U.; Sommerfeld, K.; Gophna, S.; Doolittle, W.F.; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, S.J.O. Differences between Tissue-Associated Intestinal Microfloras of Patients with Crohn’s Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. J. Clin. Microbiol. 2006, 44, 4136–4141. [L]

Martinez-Medina, M.; Aldeguer, X.; Gonzalez-Huix, F.; Acero, D.; Garcia-Gil, L.J. Abnormal Microbiota Composition in the Ileocolonic Mucosa of Crohn’s Disease Patients as Revealed by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2006, 12, 1136–1145. [L]

Wang, M.; Molin, G.; Ahrné, S.; Adawi, D.; Jeppsson, B. High Proportions of Proinflammatory Bacteria on the Colonic Mucosa in a Young Patient with Ulcerative Colitis as Revealed by Cloning and Sequencing of 16S RRNA Genes. Dig. Dis. Sci. 2007, 52, 620–627 [L]

Carvalho, F.A.; Barnich, N.; Sauvanet, P.; Darcha, C.; Gelot, A.; Darfeuille-Michaud, A. Crohn’s Disease-Associated Escherichia coli LF82 Aggravates Colitis in Injured Mouse Colon via Signaling by Flagellin. Inflamm. Bowel Dis. 2008, 14, 1051–1060. [CrossRef] 18. Mukhopadhya, I.; Hansen, R.; El-Omar, E.M.; Hold, G.L. IBD-What Role Do Proteobacteria Play? Nat. Rev. Gastroenterol. Hepatol. 2012, 9, 219–230. [L]

Lavelle, A.; Lennon, G.; O’Sullivan, O.; Docherty, N.; Balfe, A.; Maguire, A.; Mulcahy, H.E.; Doherty, G.; O’Donoghue, D.; Hyland, J.; et al. Spatial Variation of the Colonic Microbiota in Patients with Ulcerative Colitis and Control Volunteers. Gut 2015, 64, 1553–1561. [L]

What does it mean if your Enterobacteriaceae result is too high?

An increase is related to IBD.

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