Roseburia is a genus (=group) of 5 species of bacteria named in the 1980s after American microbiologist Theodor Rosebury. Bacteria in this genus are notable for breaking down sugar, and producing a short-chain fatty acid called butyrate which is important as a food for the cells lining the colon.
The genus Roseburia consists of obligate Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria that are slightly curved, rod-shaped and motile by means of multiple subterminal flagella. It includes five species: Roseburia intestinalis, R. hominis, R. inulinivorans, R. faecis and R. cecicola.
– Gut Roseburia spp. metabolize dietary components that stimulate their proliferation and metabolic activities.
– They are part of commensal bacteria producing short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, affecting colonic motility, immunity maintenance and anti-inflammatory properties. Butyrate has been observed to help prevent colorectal cancer and colitis
– Modification in Roseburia spp. representation may affect various metabolic pathways and is associated with several diseases (including irritable bowel syndrome, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, nervous system conditions and allergies).
– Roseburia spp. could also serve as biomarkers for symptomatic pathologies (e.g., gallstone formation) or as probiotics for restoration of beneficial flora.
– A decrease of the butyrate-producing species Roseburia hominis and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii defines dysbiosis in patients with ulcerative colitis. [L]
– Roseburia spp.: a marker of health? [L]
– Human Gut Symbiont Roseburia hominis Promotes and Regulates Innate Immunity [L]
– Reduced Dietary Intake of Carbohydrates by Obese Subjects Results in Decreased Concentrations of Butyrate and Butyrate-Producing Bacteria in Feces [L]
– Gut metagenome in European women with normal, impaired and diabetic glucose control. [L]
– Roseburia hominis: a novel guilty player in ulcerative colitis pathogenesis? [L]
A lower abundance of Roseburia has been observed in patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. It has also been suggested that a decrease in one particular species, Roseburia hominis, may be associated with ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome.
– A lower abundance of Roseburia spp. has been associated with Ulcerative Colitis.
– In type 2 diabetes low levels of Lactobacillus and Roseburia can be observed.
– Studies have shown that reduced carbohydrates intake by obese subjects decrease Roseburia spp. and hence butyrate.
– A reduction in a cluster of genes belonging to Roseburia and F. prausnitzii was identified as a discriminant marker for the prediction of diabetic status in European women.
Elevated levels of Roseburia may be associated with weight loss and reduced glucose intolerance.
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