Glycated Serum Protein (GSP)

Optimal Result: 0 - 200 umol/L.

Glycated Serum Protein (GSP) is the amount of glucose attached to total serum proteins that indicate the average amount of glucose in the blood over the previous two to three weeks.

Glycated Serum Protein (GSP) serves as a 2-3 week indicator of average blood glucose, closing the information gap between daily blood glucose and HbA1c monitoring. Studies have shown that GSP can be reliably used in medical conditions which impact red blood cell life span thus decreasing the accuracy of HbA1c measurements.

Optimal: <200 µmol/L

Borderline: 200-250 µmol/L (may indicate increased risk of diabetes mellitus)

Increased Risk: >250 µmol/L


Ai M, Otokozawa S, Asztalos BF, et al. Adiponectin: an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease in men in the Framingham Off spring Study. Atherosclerosis. 2011;217(2):543-548.

What does it mean if your Glycated Serum Protein (GSP) result is too high?

Borderline or high values indicate increased risk of diabetes.

Potential treatment options:

- Lifestyle modification

- Soluble Fiber


Therapeutic lifestyle change is the cornerstone for reducing risk for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) and diabetes. The following recommendations are based on the American Heart Association's dietary and lifestyle guidelines.

Consume a dietary pattern that achieves ≤6% of calories from saturated fat and emphasizes intake of vegetables, fruits and whole grains; includes low-fat dairy products, poultry, fatty fish, legumes, non-tropical vegetable oils and nuts; and limits intake of refined grains, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and red meats. Eliminate foods high in trans fat.

If indicated: control blood pressure, reduce weight, engage in smoking cessation and be physically active — work up to getting at least 30 minutes of a moderate intensity physical activity, at least 5 days per week.

→ Elevated production markers indicate an increased cellular production of cholesterol which may be associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therapeutic lifestyle changes focus on LDL-C reduction through weight loss and decreased intake of animal fat, refined carbohydrates, sweets and sugar-sweetened beverages.

→ To increase HDL-C and to decrease non-HDL-C, LDL-C levels it is important to reduce saturated fat intake, refined carbohydrates, sugars and eliminate trans fats.

→ To lower small dense LDL-C reduce intake of simple carbohydrates and alcohol and if indicated reduce weight and increase physical activity. An elevation in small dense LDL-C is often associated with metabolic syndrome.

→ To optimize glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, and reduce risk of diabetes and CVD it is important to reduce weight and simple carbohydrate intake. 

→ Uric acid is the end product of purine metabolism and is commonly associated with metabolic syndrome. Stay well hydrated and consider reducing high fructose corn syrup, alcohol and purines in the diet.

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