Metabolic Health

Adiponectin

Optimal Result: 2.5 - 12.3 ug/ml.

Adiponectin is a protein produced by fat cells (adipocytes). It plays an important role in a number of bodily processes including:

- metabolizing lipids,

- insulin response,

- glucose regulation,

- and reducing inflammation.

The adiponectin blood test determines the levels of adiponectin in blood. It is used to diagnose metabolic disorders such as Type 2 diabetes. Adiponectin is a hormone that is released from fat cells and will help to control the inflammation of tissue. The hormone will also boost insulin sensitivity and increases the breakdown of fatty acid in the liver. This process will, in turn, decrease the manufacturing of glucose by the liver. A low result might suggest Type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome. 

Symptoms that warrant ordering the adiponectin test may include: 

- increased thirst
- blurry vision
- fatigue
- history of cardiovascular disease
- rapid weight loss
- frequent urination
- obesity
- tingling or numbing in extremities

Adiponectin is a plasma adipokine protein secreted specifically by adipose tissue.

Obesity is strongly associated with the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. 

Recent studies have suggested that adipose tissue may play an important role in the development of these conditions and their complications through the secretion of various bioactive molecules referred to as adipokines. 

Adipokines contribute to the pathophysiology of obesity-linked disorders through their abilities to modulate inflammatory and metabolic processes. Diminished levels of adiponectin have been associated with the increased prevalence of obesity-linked cardiovascular diseases, including ischemic heart disease and peripheral artery disease.

Adiponectin is also involved in the inflammatory process and is of importance in the appearance of arteriosclerosis and coronaritis. It has been suggested that determination of the adiponectin level in plasma may serve to estimate the risk of coronary disease and may influence physiological processes such as angiogenesis. Further studies have shown that adiponectin acts directly on cardiac cells and facilitates cardiac remodeling in patients suffering from acute cardiac injury.

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References:

- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17140553
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19043226
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19261992
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19584347
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17142348
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18069030
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18093861
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19029992
- http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19910504

What does it mean if your Adiponectin result is too low?

Lowered adiponectin production is associated with obesity. Plasma levels of adiponectin are inversely correlated with body fat percentage in adults.

Studies have found that people with higher concentrations of visceral fat, which forms around the internal organs as opposed to beneath the skin, have lower levels of adiponectin.

Deficiency of adiponectin can contribute to a number of health complications including:

- elevated cholesterol,

- insulin resistance,

- diabetes,

- and increased risk of cancer.

Weight loss, physical exercise, and a healthy diet can all contribute to increasing adiponectin levels. 

Clinical and experimental studies suggest that low adiponectin levels contribute to the development of obesity-linked illness. Adiponectin has been associated with insulin resistance and linked with type II diabetes, as well as glucose and lipid metabolism. Adiponectin may have relevance for energy metabolism through the regulation of fatty acid oxidation. A number of studies have suggested that adiponectin plays a regulatory role in atherogenesis, endothelial function, and vascular remodeling.

What does it mean if your Adiponectin result is too high?

Typically, higher levels of adiponectin reduce the risk of heart disease and heart attack.

Higher prediagnosis adiponectin levels have also been associated with decreased risk of developing high-grade prostate cancer and a lower risk of prostate cancer-related death.

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