Serine can be used as an energy source. Formed from threonine and phosphoserine (requiring B6, manganese, and magnesium), serine is necessary for the biosynthesis of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter used in memory function.
Low serine levels can lead to disordered methionine metabolism and deficits in acetylcholine synthesis. If simultaneous high threonine or phosphoserine, then need for vitamin B6, folate, and manganese is indicated.
Low serine may lead to memory problems and depression.
High levels of serine when accompanied by low threonine, indicates glucogenic compensation and catabolism.
Supplement threonine and BCAAs.
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