A healthy result should fall into the range 40 - 122 µmol/L.

Vaccenic acid is a naturally occuring trans-fatty acid. Vaccenic acid is called this way as it is found in cow’s milk. The latin word vacca means cow.

Vaccenic acid is the most commonly occuring trans-fatty acid in ruminant fats and the meat and dairy products they provide.

Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown consistently that trans-fatty acids, such as vaccenic acid, increase cardiovascular risk and adversely affect blood lipids by raising the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio. [L]

References:

– A prospective study of intake of trans-fatty acids from ruminant fat, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and marine oils and mortality from CVD. [L]

– Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review [L]

– Fatty acid composition in chronic heart failure: low circulating levels of eicosatetraenoic acid and high levels of vaccenic acid are associated with disease severity and mortality. [L]

– Cis-vaccenic acid and the Framingham Risk Score predict chronic kidney disease: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) [L]

– PubChem – Vaccenic Acid [L]

– trans-Fatty acids promote proinflammatory signaling and cell death by stimulating the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38 pathway [L]

– Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. [L]

– B. A. Golomb, M. A. Evans, H. L. White, J. E. Dimsdale. Trans fat consumption and aggression. PLoS ONE 2012 7(3):e32175 [L]

– I. Laake, J. I. Pedersen, R. Selmer, B. Kirkhus, A. S. Lindman, A. Tverdal, M. B. Veierod. A prospective study of intake of trans-fatty acids from ruminant fat, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and marine oils and mortality from CVD. Br. J. Nutr. 2012 108(4):743 – 754 [L]

– Report Offers New Eating and Physical Activity Targets To Reduce Chronic Disease Risk [L]

– Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease, The new England Journal of Medicine [L]

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