Estrone is the predominant estrogen in post-menopausal women and inter-converts with estradiol. This conversion is dependant on the bidirectional activity of 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, which also converts testosterone to androstenedione (an intermediate of androsterone, etiocholanolone, and estrone).
Why does estrogen decrease?
- Age (peri-menopause and menopause)
- Irregular cycles/skipped cycles/anovulation
- Hysterectomy with ovaries removed
- Low cholesterol (backbone to hormones)
- Extreme exercise or training
- Extreme stress resulting in skipped menses
- Under appropriate body weight percentage for height/age
• Mixed research: suggested <15% body fat = amenorrhea
- Hypogonadism (ovaries fail)
- Hypopituitarism (pituitary not communicating)
- Decreased blood flow to the ovaries
- Ex. Surgery or smokers
- Breast feeding
- Fertility medications
- Opioid pain medications (in last 6 months)
- Hormonal birth control – pill, patch, ring, implant, injection
Why do Estrogen levels increase?
2. Peri-menopause = surges of estrogen
5. Estrogen supplementation
6. Steroid medications
7. Poor liver clearance so estrogens build up
8. Dysbiosis/Estrobolome problems
9. Over aromatization from testosterone
10. Environmental estrogens (difficult to test however)
11. Alcohol (2 or more glasses/day shown to increase E)
12. Ovarian cysts
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