A healthy result should fall into the range 65 - 100 mg/dL, or 3.61 - 5.55 mmol/L.

Glucose is a simple sugar formed from the breakdown of carbohydrates in our bodies. It is stored mainly in the liver and muscles as glycogen before being turned into free glucose, a primary energy source. Frequently referred to as “blood sugar,” glucose is a vital and necessary part of our metabolic process; however, too much blood sugar can become problematic. Typically, a hormone called insulin controls the amount of sugar in your blood. If your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or the insulin produced doesn’t work properly, then you may have diabetes or be pre-diabetic. Dysregulation of blood sugar levels can lead to a build up of sugar in your body, which can cause severe organ damage if left untreated. A healthcare professional may order a glucose blood test to:

-Detect high blood glucose (hyperglycemia) and low blood glucose  (hypoglycemia)

-Screen for diabetes in people who are at risk but have not started showing signs and symptoms

-Help diagnose diabetes, pre-diabetes, and gestational diabetes

-Monitor blood sugar levels in people diagnosed with diabetes

 

Blood glucose tests are either random or fasting tests. For a fasting blood glucose test, you can’t eat or drink anything but water for eight hours before the test. Fasting tests are more common because they provide more accurate results and are easier to interpret. There are a number of medications that can affect your blood glucose levels, including: acetaminophen, steroids, diuretics, birth control pills, hormone therapy, aspirin, lithium, tricyclic antidepressants, MAOIs, and others. In addition, severe stress like surgery, trauma, stroke, and heart attack can cause a temporary increase in your blood glucose levels.

 

Normal Ranges for a Fasting Blood Glucose Test in mg/dL:

Glucose level

Indication

Less than 100 mg/dL

Normal

From 100 to 125

Pre-diabetes

Equal to or greater than 126

Diabetes

 

Normal Ranges for a Gestational Diabetes Two-Step Approach in mg/dL:

Samples drawn at fasting and then 1, 2, and 3 hours after a 100-gram glucose drink. If two or more values meet or exceed the target level, gestational diabetes is diagnosed.

Time of collection

Target levels

Fasting (prior to glucose load)

95

1 hour after glucose load

180

2 hours after glucose load

155

3 hours after glucose load

140

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