Our bodies normally run on glucose we get from food. When bodies don’t have glucose because of starvation or illness or can’t use glucose because of a lack of insulin, they start burning fat for energy. The fat breaks down into ketones, with these ketones pouring into the blood and some passing into the urine. This release of ketones into the urine is called “ketonuria”.
The buildup of ketones in the body is called “ketosis”. If your glucose is close to normal and you are well-hydrated, ketosis is no problem. Many low-carb diets create ketosis on purpose, as it can be an indicator of fat burning and weight loss.
Ketones are acids. If you have too many ketones, they can make your blood too acidic. This can lead to a very dangerous and often life-threatening situation called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).
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