A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 1.13 wt %.
Vaccenic acid is a naturally occuring trans-fatty acid. Vaccenic acid is called this way as it is found in cow’s milk. The latin word vacca means cow.
Vaccenic acid is the most commonly occuring trans-fatty acid in ruminant fats and the meat and dairy products they provide.
Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown consistently that trans-fatty acids, such as vaccenic acid, increase cardiovascular risk and adversely affect blood lipids by raising the LDL to HDL cholesterol ratio. [L]
– A prospective study of intake of trans-fatty acids from ruminant fat, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and marine oils and mortality from CVD. [L]
– Effect of Animal and Industrial Trans Fatty Acids on HDL and LDL Cholesterol Levels in Humans – A Quantitative Review [L]
– Fatty acid composition in chronic heart failure: low circulating levels of eicosatetraenoic acid and high levels of vaccenic acid are associated with disease severity and mortality. [L]
– Cis-vaccenic acid and the Framingham Risk Score predict chronic kidney disease: the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) [L]
– PubChem – Vaccenic Acid [L]
– trans-Fatty acids promote proinflammatory signaling and cell death by stimulating the apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1)-p38 pathway [L]
– Human health benefits of vaccenic acid. [L]
– B. A. Golomb, M. A. Evans, H. L. White, J. E. Dimsdale. Trans fat consumption and aggression. PLoS ONE 2012 7(3):e32175 [L]
– I. Laake, J. I. Pedersen, R. Selmer, B. Kirkhus, A. S. Lindman, A. Tverdal, M. B. Veierod. A prospective study of intake of trans-fatty acids from ruminant fat, partially hydrogenated vegetable oils, and marine oils and mortality from CVD. Br. J. Nutr. 2012 108(4):743 – 754 [L]
– Report Offers New Eating and Physical Activity Targets To Reduce Chronic Disease Risk [L]
– Trans Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease, The new England Journal of Medicine [L]
– A study supports that trans-fatty acid intake, irrespective of source, increases CVD risk.
– A study found that patients with heart failure had particularly high levels of vaccenic acid in plasma and it was significantly associated with total mortality in that heart failure population.
– A cross-sectional study showed that vaccenic acid was positively associated with a reduced eGFR (=Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate), which is a marker for kidney health and hence reduced kidney function.
– Trans-fatty acid consumption is a major risk factor for various disorders, including atherosclerosis.
– Vaccenic acid intake or serum concentrations may be associated with increased cancer risk. [L]
Possible treatment options:
The National Academies of Science, concluded that the only safe intake of trans fats is zero [L]. Following a whole foods plant-based (=vegan) diet is recommended. To avoid all trans fats, avoid meat and dairy, refined oils, and anything that says “partially hydrogenated” in the ingredients list.
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