Optimal Result: 0 - 10 micromol/g Creat..

– Lipid peroxides is an oxidative stress marker.

– Lipid peroxides indicate damage to cell membranes from oxidation.

– Lipid peroxidation is a free radical-mediated chain of reactions that, once initiated, results in an oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids.

Lipid peroxides are oxidative degradation products of lipids, generated by a free radical chain reaction. Because of their abundance of reactive hydrogens, polyunsaturated fatty acids are highly susceptible to lipid peroxidation, which compromises the integrity and function of the cell membrane in which they reside.

Lipid Peroxides are a direct indicator of oxidative damage to polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), suggesting that production of reactive oxygen species (=ROS) has been inadequately balanced by antioxidants, esp. fat-soluble. Lipid peroxidation in cell membranes results in cellular dysfunction and is increased in many disease states. Lipid Peroxides are also increased in tissues that are poisoned by toxins.

Concentrations of lipid peroxides may be measured in urine or serum, but serum has superior sensitivity to slight increases in lipid peroxidation. It has gained general acceptance in research and clinical laboratory as a standard means of assessing the body’s antioxidant capability and overall oxidative stress.

Whenever total antioxidant capacity is inadequate to meet the oxidative challenge, cell membrane oxidation increases, releasing lipid peroxides.

What is Oxidative Stress?

Oxidative Stress occurs when the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) outweighs the body’s ability to remove them, thus shifting this equilibrium in the direction of oxidation (=rusting). The instability of free radicals and other ROS causes them to extract electrons from neighboring molecules in a chain reaction, causing cellular damage in the process. Oxidative stress has an integral relationship with the inflammatory cascade, which produces ROS, and is considered a driving force in the aging process. Oxidative stress has been implicated in a growing list of disorders, including:

– cancer,

– atherosclerosis,

– arthritis,

– diabetes,

– macular degeneration,

– chronic fatigue syndrome,

– fibromyalgia,

– and neurodegenerative diseases.

What is Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC)?

Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) reflects the collective power of reducing agents to neutralize free radicals for each individual.

Normal levels:

Normal Lipid Peroxides would suggest that despite potential oxidative stress, oxidative damage has not yet occurred.

References:

– Serum lipoproteins, lipid peroxides and prostacyclin biosynthesis in patients with coronary heart diseases [L]

– Lipid peroxides, nature.com [L]

– https://www.gdx.net/core/interpretive-guides/ION-IG.pdf

– Oxidative Stress Analysis 2.0 [L]

– Lipid peroxidation levels and total oxidant status in serum, saliva and gingival crevicular fluid in patients with chronic periodontitis. [L]

– Lipid peroxides and human diseases. [L]

– Alzoghaibi MA, Al Mofleh IA, Al-Jebreen AM. Lipid peroxides in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Saudi J Gastroenterol [L]

– Lipid Peroxides in Hepatic, Gastrointestinal, and Pancreatic Diseases [L]

– Lipid Peroxides in Hepatic, Gastrointestinal, and Pancreatic Diseases [L]

– Oxidative Stress and Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Review of Upstream and Downstream Antioxidant Therapeutic Options [L]

– Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases [L]

What does it mean if your Lipid Peroxides (urine) result is too high?

Though, oxygen is imperative for life, imbalanced metabolism and excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation end into a range of disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, aging and many other neural disorders.

Toxicity of free radicals contributes to proteins and DNA injury, inflammation, tissue damage and subsequent cellular apoptosis.

Also, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer), including sarcopenia and frailty.

High Lipid Peroxides are associated with:

– Oxidative damage to lipids in the body due to excessive reactive oxygen species production.

– Oxidative damage to lipids in the body due to deficient antioxidant protection

– High-fat diet, excess Fe or Cu, smoking, obesity with insulin resistance, heavy metal toxicity, excessive exercise, protein energy malnutrition, periodontitis, chronic disease

– Essential Fat (EMFA) deficiencies (from ROS attack), GSH, B6 (deficiency promotes mitochondrial decay), Mg (required for GSH synthesis), B2 (required for GSH reduction), Zn

– Inadequate vitamin C is one factor leading to elevated lipid peroxides.

– Elevated lipid peroxides may indicate a need for coenzyme Q10.

When prolonged or severe, oxidative stress eventually results in tissue damage and increased risk of disease, as indicated by an elevated Lipid Peroxides (reflecting oxidative damage to lipids in the body).

Treatment options to increase Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC):

Diet is major source of antioxidants, as well as medicinal herbs are catching attention to be commercial source of antioxidants at present. Recognition of upstream and downstream antioxidant therapy to oxidative stress has been proved an effective tool in alteration of any neuronal damage as well as free radical scavenging.

Dietary adjustments:

– Increase: fresh fruits & vegetables

– Eliminate: trans fats

– Eliminate excess Iron or Cu (promotes hydroxyl radical production)

Supplementation considerations:

– Antioxidants, esp. fat-soluble: Vitamins A & E, CoQ10, Carotenoids

– Herbal antioxidants: garlic, green tea, curcuma, propolis, grape-seed

Further Evaluation:

– Environmental: Elemental Analysis (urine, RBCs)

– Nutritional: Amino Acid Analysis, Organic Acids

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