The tests for parietal cell and/or intrinsic factor antibodies may be used along with several other tests, such as complete blood count (CBC) and blood smear, to help diagnose pernicious anemia.
What are Antiparietal Cell Antibody?
Parietal cell antibodies are autoantibodies, proteins produced by the immune system that mistakenly target a type of specialized cells that line the stomach wall.
What does this biomarker indicate?
The test for this biomarker detects these antibodies in the blood to help diagnose pernicious anemia.
What is Pernicious anemia?
Pernicious anemia is an autoimmune condition that can occur when the body's immune system targets its own tissues and develops antibodies directed against the parietal cells and/or intrinsic factor.
What are parietal cells specialized in?
Parietal cells are specialized cells in the stomach that make acid to help in food digestion and also make intrinsic factor.
What is intrinsic factor?
Intrinsic factor is required for the absorption of vitamin B12 from food. During digestion, stomach acids produced by parietal cells release vitamin B12 from food, which binds to intrinsic factor to form a complex. The formation of this complex allows vitamin B12 to be absorbed in the small intestine. Among having functional roles in the brain and nervous system, vitamin B12 is important in the production of red blood cells (RBCs).
What is autoimmune atrophic gastritis?
When the body’s immune system mistakenly targets its own tissues and develops antibodies directed against parietal cells and/or intrinsic factor, it can cause inflammation and progressively damage the parietal cells. This autoimmune condition, called autoimmune atrophic gastritis, can disrupt the production or function of intrinsic factor.
Vitamin B12 deficiency:
Without sufficient intrinsic factor, vitamin B12 goes largely unabsorbed, leading to vitamin B12 deficiency. Deficiency in vitamin B12 can result in megaloblastic anemia, characterized by the production of fewer but larger red blood cells (macrocytes). Vitamin B12 deficiency can also result in nerve-related signs and symptoms (neuropathy), such as numbness and tingling that start first in the hands and feet, muscle weakness, slow reflexes, loss of balance and unsteady walking. Other disorders can cause vitamin B12 deficiency and result in megaloblastic anemia. When it is due to a lack of intrinsic factor, it is called pernicious anemia. Besides anemia, a decrease in the numbers of neutrophils and platelets (neutropenia, thrombocytopenia) may also occur.
A high Antiparietal Cell Antibody results may be due to:
- Atrophic gastritis (inflammation of the stomach lining)
- Gastric ulcer
- Pernicious anemia
- Thyroid disease
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