Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys.
Penicillium expansum, the blue mold that causes soft rot of apples, pears, cherries, and other fruits, is recognized as one of the most common offenders in patulin contamination. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple- derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children. Exposure to this mycotoxin is associated with immunological, neurological and gastrointestinal outcomes. Several studies have revealed its mutagenicity, teratogenicity, chromosomal aberration, DNA strand damage, and micronuclei formation in mammalian cells. However, pieces of evidence for the carcinogenic potential of PAT in the animal model are not sufficient. Based on the available data, the presence of PAT can be used as a quality control parameter, as its detection in apple derived food such as juices, ciders and concentrates indicated that moldy apples were used in the production of juices and the accumulation of PAT within the body may pose toxicological threats. For this reason, the problem of detecting even low levels of PAT in apple juices continues to receive attention. Because apple juice is such a popular beverage and the possibility for life-long exposure exists, PAT will likely remain important to apple processors and governments interested in monitoring the quality of apple juices and products.
Patulin is a toxic chemical contaminant produced by several species of mold, especially within Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys. It is the most common mycotoxin found in apples and apple-derived products such as juice, cider, compotes and other food intended for young children.
Nausea, gastrointestinal disturbances, and vomiting have been reported. The chronic symptoms include genotoxic, neurotoxic, immune-toxic, immunosuppressive, and teratogenic effects.
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