A healthy result should fall into the range 0 - 8 ug/g creat.
3-HPMA is a metabolite of acrolein. Acrolein is commonly used as an herbicide to control weeds and algae in irrigation canals. Humans are exposed to acrolein via oral (fried foods, alcoholic beverages, and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke and automobile exhaust), and dermal routes. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, and immune dysfunction.
3-HPMA is the main urinary metabolite of acrolein. Acrolein is an environmental pollutant, commonly used as an herbicide and in many different chemical industries. Acrolein is also present in the burning of cigarettes, gasoline, and oil. Certain bacteria produce acrolein, such as Clostridium. Acrolein metabolites are associated with diabetes and insulin resistance.
N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or glutathione (GSH) supplementation is recommended as treatment.
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