Chromium (Cr) is essential for proper metabolism of glucose in humans. It potentiates the action of insulin via glucose tolerance factor (GTF) which is Cr+3 bound in a dinicotinic acid-glutathione complex. Other functions of Cr include aiding in lipid metabolism and assisting with HDL/LDL cholesterol balance.
- Anderson R.A. Essentiality of Chromium in Humans” Sci Total Environ. 86, 1989, pp 75-81.
- Anderson R.A. et al, Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 41, 1985 pp 571-77
- Mertz W., ”Chromium Occurrence and Function in Biological Systems”. Physiological Review 49(2), 1969, pp 163-239.
- Mertz, W. Clinical, Biochemical and Nutritional Aspects of Trace Elements, Alan R. Liss, Inc., New York, NY, 1982, pp 315-23.
- Rennert O.M. and W-Y Chan Metabolism of Trace Metals in Man vol II, CRC Press, Boca Raton FL, pp 122-24.
- Tsalev D.L. and Z.K. Zaprianov, Atomic Absorption Spectrometry in Occupational and Environmental Health Practice, CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1983, pp 113-17.
Significance of Low Chromium:
Clinical findings consistent with Cr deficiency are those of GTF insufficiency including diabetes, hyperglycemia, and possibly transient hyper/hypoglycemia. Excessive LDL cholesterol also may be consistent with Cr deficiency. Some investigators have linked Cr deficiency to ischemic heart disease and atherosclerosis.
Other Useful Analyses: Urine Toxic Metals and Essential Elements provocative testing with EDTA can be used to assess Cr stores.
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