MycoTOX Profile (Mold Exposure)

Citrinin (Dihydrocitrinone DHC)

Optimal Result: 0 - 25 ng/g creatinine.

Dihydrocitrinone (DHC) is a metabolite of Citrinin (CTN), which is a mycotoxin that is produced by the mold genera Aspergillus, Penicillium, and Monascus. CTN exposure can lead to nephropathy, because of its ability to increase permeability of mitochondrial membranes in the kidneys. The three most common exposure routes are through ingestion, inhalation, and skin contact. CTN has been shown to be carcinogenic in rat studies. Multiple studies have linked CTN exposure to a suppression of the immune response.

Resources:

https://www.longdom.org/open-access/the-occurrence-properties-and-significance-of-citrinin-mycotoxin-2157-7471-1000321.pdf

 

What does it mean if your Citrinin (Dihydrocitrinone DHC) result is too high?

To treat possible fungal infections caused by mold exposure patients can take pharmaceutical medications such as itraconazole or nystatin. Retesting is recommended after 3-6 months of treatment.

How to avoid exposure to Citrinin (Dihydrocitrinone DHC)?

Treatment of Citrinin requires a reduction in exposure to the toxin.

- Carefully inspect whole grains and nuts for evidence of mould, and discard any that look mouldy, discoloured, or shriveled.

- Buy grains and nuts as fresh as possible; that have been grown as close to home as possible, and which have not been transported over a long time.

- Buy only reputable brands of nuts and nut butters – moulds are not entirely killed by processing or roasting, so can show up in products e.g. peanut butter.

- Make sure that foods are stored properly and are not kept for extended periods of time before being used.

- Try to ensure your diet is diverse; this not only helps to mitigate aflatoxin exposure, but also improves health and nutrition. Consumers who lack dietary diversity need to pay extra attention to minimize the risk of high exposure to aflatoxins. For example, extensive aflatoxin exposure has been reported from areas where people get a major part of their daily calorie intake from maize; this foodstuff is commonly contaminated with aflatoxins and needs to be handled properly both before and after harvest.

However, this is not considering the mycotoxins that might be produced from water-damaged buildings – really the most common cause of mould illness. 

How to potentially help the body to remove Citrinin:

- Activated charcoal

- Anti-fungals such as oregano oil

- Probiotics

- Liposomal glutathione

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