Cystine is rate limiting for glutathione production. Cystine is the oxidized form of cysteine.
Cystine is formed from the oxidation of cysteine, or from the degradation of glutathione oxidation products. It is two cysteines linked together with a disulfide bond.
- Low cystine may be reflective of reduced glutathione levels and has also been noted in those with celiac disease and lower BMD.
- Cysteine can be imported into cells either directly or as cystine, within the cell, cystine is immediately reduced to cysteine.
- Higher plasma cystine has been associated with older age, female, higher BMI, lower GFR, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, lower total cholesterol levels, statin use, lower ejection fraction, and higher hsCRP.
- Higher urine cystine may be indicative of impaired amino acid reabsorption defects and has been associated with recurrent cystine kidney stones.
- Cystine from foods sources is considered nutritionally equivalent to cysteine (egg, beef, and whole grains, fish, lentils, and oatmeal).
- Go YM, Jones DP. Redox theory of aging: implications for health and disease. Clin Sci. 2017;131(14):1669-1688.
- Dall’Acqua S, Stocchero M, Boschiero I, et al. New findings on the in vivo antioxidant activity of Curcuma longa extract by an integrated (1)H NMR and HPLC-MS metabolomic approach. Fitoterapia. 2016;109:125-131.
- Woodard LE, Welch RC, Veach RA, et al. Metabolic consequences of cystinuria. BMC Nephrol. 2019;20(1):227.
- Brantley MA, Jr., Osborn MP, Sanders BJ, et al. The short-term effects of antioxidant and zinc supplements on oxidative stress biomarker levels in plasma: a pilot investigation. Am J Ophthalmol. 2012;153(6):1104-1109.e1102.
- Hopkins MH, Fedirko V, Jones DP, Terry PD, Bostick RM. Antioxidant micronutrients and biomarkers of oxidative stress and inflammation in colorectal adenoma patients: results from a randomized, controlled clinical trial. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2010;19(3):850 858.
- Leslie SW, Sajjad H, Nazzal L. Renal Calculi (Cystinuria, Cystine Stones). In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing LLC.;2020
- Birwe H, Schneeberger W, Hesse A. Investigations of the efficacy of ascorbic acid therapy in cystinuria. Urolog Res. 1991;19(3):199-201.
- Brundig P, Borner RH, Berg W, et al. [Possibilities and limits in the treatment of cystine calculus diathesis with high-dose ascorbic acid. Results of a combined study with 17 patients]. Zeitschrift Urol Nephrol. 1986;79(3):137-146.
- Lux B, May P. Long-term observation of young cystinuric patients under ascorbic acid therapy. Urolog Internat. 1983;38(2):91-94.
- Asper R, Schmucki O. [Cystinuria therapy by ascorbic acid (author’s transl)]. Urolog Internat. 1982;37(2):91-109.
Anything that may lower cysteine, could potentially contribute to low cystine levels. Low cystine may be seen specifically in low animal protein diets.
Anything that elevates cysteine, could potentially contribute to higher levels of cystine.
Elevations of cystine may be associated with increased oxidative stress; antioxidants such as vitamins A, C, E and plant- based antioxidants may be considered.
In plasma, cystine is increased with age, obesity, cigarette smoking, alcohol abuse, HIV infection, carotid intima media thickness, endothelial cell function, type 2 diabetes, and age- related macular degeneration.
Cystinuria is an inherited renal transport disorder that features poor renal conservation and increased urinary excretion of cystine and other amino acids and metabolites. This condition is associated with renal calculi formation. Genova’s profiles are not meant to diagnose inherited cystinuria. If suspected, due diligence with conventional medicine work up is recommended.
Own it for life
Our exclusive data entry service is a convenient way to get your results into your private dashboard. Simply attach an image or a file of your lab test results, and one of our qualified data entry team members will add the results for you. We support all sorts of files, whether PDFs, JPGs, or Excel. This service is excellent whether you have a lot of reports to upload or are too busy to do the data entry yourself.
We strive to make the data entry process easy for you. Whether by offering dozens of templates to choose from that pre-populate the most popular laboratory panels or by giving you instant feedback on the entered values. Our data entry forms are an easy, fast, and convenient way to enter the reports yourself. There is no limit on how many lab reports you can upload.
billed every month
Data entry included
$6.60/month billed annually
Data entry included
own it for life
Are You a Health Professional?
Get started with our professional plan
Welcome to Healthmatters Pro.
Save time on interpreting lab results with the largest database of biomarkers online. In-depth research on any test at your fingertips, all stored and tracked in one place. Learn more
Pro Monthly Plus
for health professionals
$75 per month