1-methylhistidine is derived from the dipeptide anserine (which consists of the amino acids 1-methylhistidine and beta-alanine). Anserine and its derivatives are associated with the consumption of poultry and fish. Both 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine have been proposed as markers of meat intake. Note that confusion exists in the literature regarding the numbering of atoms in the imidazole ring of histidine – 1 versus 3 – and thus, there is caution with interpretation and clinical significance of these two markers.
- Total meat intake was associated with plasma anserine, carnosine, 1-methylhistidine.
- 1-Methylhistidine is derived mainly from anserine, from meat, fish, and primarily poultry.
- Cuparencu C, Pratico G, Hemeryck LY, et al. Biomarkers of meat and seafood intake: an extensive literature review. Genes Nutr. 2019;14:35.
- Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, et al. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(3):600-608.
- Sadikali F, Darwish R, Watson WC. Carnosinase activity of human gastrointestinal mucosa. Gut. 1975;16(8):585-589.
- Abe H, Okuma E, Sekine H, Maeda A, Yoshiue S. Human urinary excretion of L-histidine-related compounds after ingestion of several meats and fish muscle. Int J Biochem. 1993;25(9):1245-1249.
- Derave W, De Courten B, Baba SP. An update on carnosine and anserine research. Amino Acids. 2019;51(1):1-4.
- Sjolin J, Hjort G, Friman G, Hambraeus L. Urinary excretion of 1-methylhistidine: a qualitative indicator of exogenous 3-methylhistidine and intake of meats from various sources. Metab: Clin Exp. 1987;36(12):1175-1184.
- Hagen IV, Helland A, Bratlie M, et al. TMAO, creatine and 1-methylhistidine in serum and urine are potential biomarkers of cod and salmon intake: a randomised clinical trial in adults with overweight or obesity. Eur J Nutr. 2019.
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Urine and plasma levels of 1-methylhistidine are higher with poultry and fish consumption. Since it is a dipeptide, elevations might also signify incomplete protein digestion.
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1-Methylhistidine, 1-Methylhistidine (Plasma), 2-Methylhippuric Acid, 2-Methylsuccinic Acid, 3,4-Dihydroxyhydrocinnamic Acid, 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid, 3-Methylhistidine (Plasma), 3-Phenylpropionylglycine, 4-Hydroxybenzoic Acid, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 4-Hydroxyphenylpyruvic Acid, 5-Hydroxyindoleacetic Acid, 8-Hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, a-Hydroxybutyric Acid, a-Ketobutyric Acid, a-Ketoglutaric Acid, a-Ketoisovaleric Acid, a-Aminoadipic Acid (Plasma), a-Keto-b-methylvaleric Acid, a-Ketoisocaproic Acid, Adipic Acid, Alanine, Alanine (Plasma), Aldosterone, Anserine (Plasma), Anthranilic Acid, Arabinitol, Arginine (Plasma), Arginosuccinic Acid, Arginosuccinic Acid (Plasma), Asparagine (Plasma), Aspartic Acid (Plasma), b-Hydroxybutyric Acid, b-Alanine (Plasma), b-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid, Benzoic Acid, Benzoylform, Branched Chain Alpha-Keto Organic Acids, Carnosine, Carnosine (Plasma), cis-Aconitic Acid, Citric Acid, Citrulline (Plasma), Cortisol, Cortisone, Creatinine, Cystathionine (Plasma), Cystine (Plasma), D-Lactic Acid, Equol, Ethanolamine (Plasma), Ethylmalonic Acid, Formiminoglutamic Acid, Fructose, Fumaric Acid, g-Aminobutyric Acid (Plasma), Glucaric Acid, Glucose, Glutamic Acid (Plasma), Glutamine (Plasma), Glutamine / Glutamate Ratio (Plasma), Glutaric Acid, Glycine (Plasma), Glycylproline (Plasma), Hexanoylglycine, Hippuric Acid, Histidine (Plasma), Homocitrulline (Plasma), Homocystine (Plasma), Homogentisic Acid, Homovanillic Acid, Hydroxykynurenine, Hydroxyproline, Hydroxyproline (Plasma), Indoleacetic Acid, Isocitric Acid, Isoleucine/allo-Isoleucine (Plasma), KT Ratio (Plasma), Kynurenic Acid, Kynurenine (Plasma), Lactic Acid, Leucine (Plasma), Lysine (Plasma), Malic Acid, Mandelic Acid, Methionine (Plasma), Methylmalonic Acid, Microalbumin, Ornithine, Ornithine (Plasma), Orotic Acid, Oxalic Acid, pH, Phenylacetic Acid, Phenylalanine (Plasma), Phosphate, Phosphoethanolamine (Plasma), Picolinic Acid, Pimelic Acid, Proline (Plasma), Pyridoxic Acid, Pyroglutamic Acid, Pyruvic Acid, Quercetin, Quinolinic Acid, Sarcosine (Plasma), Sebacic Acid, Serine (Plasma), Suberic Acid, Suberylglycine, Succinic Acid, Sulfocysteine (Plasma), Tartaric Acid, Taurine (Plasma), Threonine (Plasma), Total Branched Chain Amino Acids (Plasma), Tryptophan (Plasma), Tyrosine (Plasma), Valine (Plasma), Vannilylmandelic Acid, Xanthurenic Acid