(p-Hydroxybenzoate or 4-HB)
- One of the most abundant phenolates formed by the microbiota. It is a product of microbial transformation of dietary polyphenols and endogenous metabolites such as dopamine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.
- It is found in red huckleberry, coriander, blueberry, Swiss chard, carrots, olive, and sour cherries.
- Coenzyme Q10 is synthesized in multiple steps from the precursor 4-hydroxybenzoic acid. CoQ10 is composed of a benzoquinone ring.
- 4-hydroxybenzoic acid increased on a low FODMAP diet and is positively associated with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and A. muciniphilia, and negatively with Actinobacteria.
- 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is the common metabolite of all parabens, structurally related benzoic acid (without the OH group) and has potential endocrine activity.
4-hydroxybenzoic acid increased on a low FODMAP diet and is positively associated with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and A. muciniphilia, and negatively with Actinobacteria.
$79 per year
$6.60 per month billed annually
$79 per year
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