Optimal Result: 9 - 97 micromol/g creatinine.

Threonine is a large neutral amino acid and a precursor for the amino acid glycine. Foods that contain relatively high amounts of threonine include cheeses (especially Swiss), meat, fish, poultry, seeds, walnuts, cashews, almonds and peanuts. Threonine gets converted to glycine using a two-step biochemical pathway involving the enzymes threonine dehydrogenase and the vitamin B6-dependent glycine C-acetyltransferase.

Threonine has been studied clinically as a supplement to increase cerebrospinal fluid levels of glycine in patients with spasticity related to neurological conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Threonine may also play a role in tissue healing and liver health. It is used to synthesize body proteins and is found in high concentrations relative to other amino acids in mucus glycoproteins. Many amino acids, including threonine can be converted into citric acid cycle intermediates for mitochondrial ATP production or for gluconeogenesis, depending on the body’s needs.


- Adrych K, Smoczynski M, Stojek M, et al. Decreased serum essential and aromatic amino acids in patients with chronic pancreatitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010;16(35):4422-4427.62

- Vannucchi H, Moreno FS, Amarante AR, de Oliveira JE, Marchini JS. Plasma amino acid patterns in alcoholic pellagra patients. Alcohol Alcoholism. 1991;26(4):431-436.

- Edgar AJ. The human L-threonine 3-dehydrogenase gene is an expressed pseudogene. BMC Genet. 2002;3:18.

- Edgar AJ, Polak JM. Molecular cloning of the human and murine 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase cDNAs. Eur J Biochem. 2000;267(6):1805-1812.

- Lee A, Patterson V. A double-blind study of L-threonine in patients with spinal spasticity. Acta Neurol Scand. 1993;88(5):334-338.

- Hauser SL, Doolittle TH, Lopez-Bresnahan M, et al. An antispasticity effect of threonine in multiple sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 1992;49(9):923-926.

- Roufs JB. L-threonine as a symptomatic treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Med Hypoth. 1991;34(1):20-23.

- Mansoor O, Breuille D, Bechereau F, et al. Effect of an enteral diet supplemented with a specific blend of amino acid on plasma and muscle protein synthesis in ICU patients. Clin Nutr. 2007;26(1):30-40.

- Yoshida A, Ashida K, Harper AE. Prevention of fatty liver due to threonine deficiency by moderate caloric restriction. Nature. 1961;189:917-918.

- Ross-Inta CM, Zhang YF, Almendares A, Giulivi C. Threoninedeficient diets induced changes in hepatic bioenergetics. Am J Physiol Gastroint Liver Phys. 2009;296(5):G1130-1139.

- Owen OE, Kalhan SC, Hanson RW. The key role of anaplerosis and cataplerosis for citric acid cycle function. J Biol Chem. 2002;277(34):30409-30412.

- Medicine Io. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press; 2005.

- Park YK, Linkswiler H. Effect of vitamin B6 depletion in adult man on the plasma concentration and the urinary excretion of free amino acids. JNutr. 1971;101(2):185-191.

What does it mean if your Threonine result is too low?

Low levels of essential amino acids may indicate a poor-quality diet, or maldigestion due to deficient digestive peptidase activity or pancreatic dysfunction. Vitamin B3 deficiency has been associated with lower levels of threonine, and other amino acids.

What does it mean if your Threonine result is too high?

High dietary intake of threonine-rich foods result in elevated levels, as well as lack of vitamin cofactors needed to utilize and metabolize threonine.

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