1-methylhistidine is derived from the dipeptide anserine (which consists of the amino acids 1-methylhistidine and beta-alanine). Anserine and its derivatives are associated with the consumption of poultry and fish. Both 1-methylhistidine and 3-methylhistidine have been proposed as markers of meat intake. Note that confusion exists in the literature regarding the numbering of atoms in the imidazole ring of histidine – 1 versus 3 – and thus, there is caution with interpretation and clinical significance of these two markers.
- Cuparencu C, Pratico G, Hemeryck LY, et al. Biomarkers of meat and seafood intake: an extensive literature review. Genes Nutr. 2019;14:35.
- Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, et al. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(3):600-608.
- Sadikali F, Darwish R, Watson WC. Carnosinase activity of human gastrointestinal mucosa. Gut. 1975;16(8):585-589.
- Abe H, Okuma E, Sekine H, Maeda A, Yoshiue S. Human urinary excretion of L-histidine-related compounds after ingestion of several meats and fish muscle. Int J Biochem. 1993;25(9):1245-1249.
- Derave W, De Courten B, Baba SP. An update on carnosine and anserine research. Amino Acids. 2019;51(1):1-4.
- Sjolin J, Hjort G, Friman G, Hambraeus L. Urinary excretion of 1-methylhistidine: a qualitative indicator of exogenous 3-methylhistidine and intake of meats from various sources. Metab: Clin Exp. 1987;36(12):1175-1184.
- Hagen IV, Helland A, Bratlie M, et al. TMAO, creatine and 1-methylhistidine in serum and urine are potential biomarkers of cod and salmon intake: a randomised clinical trial in adults with overweight or obesity. Eur J Nutr. 2019.
1-Methylhistidine is decreased with low animal protein intake, as seen in vegetarian and vegan diets.
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Urine and plasma levels of 1-methylhistidine are higher with poultry and fish consumption. Since it is a dipeptide, elevations might also signify incomplete protein digestion.
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% Omega-3s, % Omega-6s, % Omega-9s, % Saturated Fats, 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid, 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid, 3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol, 3-Methylhistidine, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 5-OH-indoleacetic Acid, 8-OHdG (urine), a-Amino-N-butyric Acid, a-Aminoadipic Acid, a-Hydroxybutyric Acid, a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE), a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid, a-Ketoadipic Acid, a-Ketoglutaric Acid, a-Ketoisocaproic Acid, a-Ketoisovaleric Acid, a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene), a-Linolenic (ALA) 18:3 n3, AA / EPA (20:4 n6 / 20:5 n3), Adipic Acid, Alanine, Aluminum, Anserine (dipeptide), Antimony, Arachidic C20:0, Arachidonic (AA) 20:4 n6, Arginine, Arsenic, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, b-Alanine, b-Aminoisobutyric Acid, b-OH-b-Methylglutaric Acid, b-OH-Butyric Acid, Barium, Behenic C22:0, Benzoic Acid, Bismuth, Cadmium, Calcium, Carnosine (dipeptide), Cesium, Chromium, cis-Aconitic Acid, Citramalic Acid, Citric Acid, Citrulline, Cobalt, Copper, Creatinine, Creatinine Concentration (Amino Acids FMV), Cystathionine, Cysteine, Cystine, D-Arabinitol, Dihomo-g-linolenic (DGLA) 20:3 n6, Dihydroxyphenylpropionic Acid (DHPPA), Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 22:6 n3, Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 22:5 n3, Docosatetraenoic (DTA) 22:4 n6, Eicosadienoic 20:2 n6, Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 20:5 n3, Elaidic 18:1 n9t, Ethanolamine, Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu), g-Aminobutyric Acid, g-Linolenic (GLA) 18:3 n6, Gadolinium, Gallium, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glutaric Acid, Glyceric Acid, Glycine, Glycolic Acid, Hippuric Acid, Histidine, Homovanillic Acid, Indoleacetic Acid, Iron, Isocitric Acid, Isoleucine, Isovalerylglycine, Kynurenic / Quinolinic Ratio, Kynurenic Acid, Lactic Acid, Lead, Leucine, Lignoceric C24:0, Linoleic (LA) 18:2 n6, Linoleic / DGLA (18:2 n6 / 20:3 n6), Lipid Peroxides (urine), Lithium, Lysine, Magnesium, Malic Acid, Manganese, Margaric C17:0, Mercury, Methionine, Methylmalonic Acid, Molybdenum, Nervonic 24:1 n9, Nickel, Niobium, Oleic 18:1 n9, Omega-3 Index, Omega-6s /Omega-3s, Ornithine, Orotic Acid, Oxalic Acid, Palmitic C16:0, Palmitoleic 16:1 n7, Pentadecanoic C15:0, Phenylacetic Acid, Phenylalanine, Phosphoethanolamine, Phosphoserine, Platinum, Potassium, Proline, Pyroglutamic Acid, Pyruvic Acid, Quinolinic Acid, Rubidium, Sarcosine, Selenium, Serine, Stearic C18:0, Strontium, Suberic Acid, Succinic Acid, Sulfur, Tartaric Acid, Taurine, Thallium, Thorium, Threonine, Tin, Tricosanoic C23:0, Tryptophan, Tungsten, Tyrosine, Uranium, Urea, Urine Creatinine, Vaccenic 18:1 n7, Valine, Vanadium, Vanilmandelic Acid, Xanthurenic Acid, Zinc