Optimal Result: 0 - 0.028 ug/g creat.

Used in integrated circuits, LED’s, solar cells, laser diodes. It is also used in medicine, where the radioisotopes are used as imaging agents,and stable compounds are used in chemotherapy. Ga can be a antimicrobial agent, and used to treat life-threatening, malignancyrelated hypercalcemia. Can be found in ground water near mining, manufacturingand coal combustion plants. Most commonly seen in occupationalexposures, while thereis less data on consumer electronic exposures.

Ga competes with iron for transferrin binding and inhibits receptor-mediated iron uptake by cells, renderingcells irondeficient. Iron replacement has been shown to restore hemoglobin production in Ga exposed cells. It was also found to interact with bone metabolism and to lower calcium levels in the blood.

Ga binds to transferrin and interferes with protein synthesis and the heme pathway. It’s use in medicine shows that it tends to localize to tumorsand cause cell death via interference with iron metabolism. Ga is excreted in the urine,and in rats, renal toxicity was noted with the formation ofprecipitatesofgallium complexed with calcium and phosphate.


Chitambar CR. Gallium Complexes as Anticancer Drugs. Metallo-Drugs: Development and Action of Anticancer Agents. 2018;18:281.

White SJO, Shine JP. Exposure potential and health impacts of indium and gallium, metals critical to emerging electronics and energy technologies. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2016;3(4):459-467.

Chitambar CR. Gallium and its competing roles with iron in biological systems. Biochim Biophysi Acta Mol Cell Res. 2016;1863(8):2044-2053.

Hayes AW. Principles and methods of toxicology. Crc Press; 2007.

What does it mean if your Gallium result is too high?

In animal studies, toxicity is associated with pulmonary conditions, immunosuppressive effects, and renal toxicity. Direct exposureto Ga has been shown to cause skin rashes, and neurological pain and weakness. Anemia is possible due to its interference with heme pathways.

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