Alpha-aminoadipic acid (also known as 2-aminoadipic acid) is an intermediary biomarker of lysine and tryptophan metabolism. The further metabolism of alpha-aminoadipic acid to alpha-ketoadipic acid requires vitamin B6.
Plasma alpha-aminoadipic acid is strongly associated with the risk of developing diabetes as seen in an assessment of the Framingham Heart Study data. Circulating levels were found to be elevated for many years prior to the onset of diabetes. Preclinical data shows it may also play a role in oxidation and atherosclerotic plaque formation.
- Goh DL, Patel A, Thomas GH, et al. Characterization of the human gene encoding alpha-aminoadipate aminotransferase (AADAT). Molec Genet Metab. 2002;76(3):172-180.
- Wang TJ, Ngo D, Psychogios N, et al. 2-Aminoadipic acid is a biomarker for diabetes risk. J Clin Invest. 2013;123(10):4309- 4317.
- Lin H, Levison BS, Buffa JA, et al. Myeloperoxidase-mediated protein lysine oxidation generates 2-aminoadipic acid and lysine nitrile in vivo. Free Rad Biol Med. 2017;104:20-31.
- Przyrembel H, Bachmann D, Lombeck I, et al. Alphaketoadipic aciduria, a new inborn error of lysine metabolism; biochemical studies. Clin Chim Acta. 1975;58(3):257-269.
- Hagen J, te Brinke H, Wanders RJ, et al. Genetic basis of alpha-aminoadipic and alpha-ketoadipic aciduria. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2015;38(5):873-879.
- Danhauser K, Sauer SW, Haack TB, et al. DHTKD1 mutations cause 2-aminoadipic and 2-oxoadipic aciduria. Am J Human Gen. 2012;91(6):1082-1087.
Low levels of this metabolite can be seen when it’s precursors, lysine and tryptophan, are also low. There is no known clinical significance of low levels of alpha-aminoadipic acid.
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The excretion of alpha-aminoadipic acid correlates well with lysine intake. Elevations of alpha-aminoadipic acid may be due to rate limitations of downstream enzymes that require nutrient cofactors including vitamin B2, B6, B12, and choline. Lastly, alpha-aminoadipic aciduria is an extremely rare inborn error of metabolism.
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% Omega-3s, % Omega-6s, % Omega-9s, % Saturated Fats, 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid, 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid, 3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol, 3-Methylhistidine, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 5-OH-indoleacetic Acid, 8-OHdG (urine), a-Amino-N-butyric Acid, a-Aminoadipic Acid, a-Hydroxybutyric Acid, a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE), a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid, a-Ketoadipic Acid, a-Ketoglutaric Acid, a-Ketoisocaproic Acid, a-Ketoisovaleric Acid, a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene), a-Linolenic (ALA) 18:3 n3, AA / EPA (20:4 n6 / 20:5 n3), Adipic Acid, Alanine, Aluminum, Anserine (dipeptide), Antimony, Arachidic C20:0, Arachidonic (AA) 20:4 n6, Arginine, Arsenic, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, b-Alanine, b-Aminoisobutyric Acid, b-OH-b-Methylglutaric Acid, b-OH-Butyric Acid, Barium, Behenic C22:0, Benzoic Acid, Bismuth, Cadmium, Calcium, Carnosine (dipeptide), Cesium, Chromium, cis-Aconitic Acid, Citramalic Acid, Citric Acid, Citrulline, Cobalt, Copper, Creatinine, Creatinine Concentration (Amino Acids FMV), Cystathionine, Cysteine, Cystine, D-Arabinitol, Dihomo-g-linolenic (DGLA) 20:3 n6, Dihydroxyphenylpropionic Acid (DHPPA), Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 22:6 n3, Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 22:5 n3, Docosatetraenoic (DTA) 22:4 n6, Eicosadienoic 20:2 n6, Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 20:5 n3, Elaidic 18:1 n9t, Ethanolamine, Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu), g-Aminobutyric Acid, g-Linolenic (GLA) 18:3 n6, Gadolinium, Gallium, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glutaric Acid, Glyceric Acid, Glycine, Glycolic Acid, Hippuric Acid, Histidine, Homovanillic Acid, Indoleacetic Acid, Iron, Isocitric Acid, Isoleucine, Isovalerylglycine, Kynurenic / Quinolinic Ratio, Kynurenic Acid, Lactic Acid, Lead, Leucine, Lignoceric C24:0, Linoleic (LA) 18:2 n6, Linoleic / DGLA (18:2 n6 / 20:3 n6), Lipid Peroxides (urine), Lithium, Lysine, Magnesium, Malic Acid, Manganese, Margaric C17:0, Mercury, Methionine, Methylmalonic Acid, Molybdenum, Nervonic 24:1 n9, Nickel, Niobium, Oleic 18:1 n9, Omega-3 Index, Omega-6s /Omega-3s, Ornithine, Orotic Acid, Oxalic Acid, Palmitic C16:0, Palmitoleic 16:1 n7, Pentadecanoic C15:0, Phenylacetic Acid, Phenylalanine, Phosphoethanolamine, Phosphoserine, Platinum, Potassium, Proline, Pyroglutamic Acid, Pyruvic Acid, Quinolinic Acid, Rubidium, Sarcosine, Selenium, Serine, Stearic C18:0, Strontium, Suberic Acid, Succinic Acid, Sulfur, Tartaric Acid, Taurine, Thallium, Thorium, Threonine, Tin, Tricosanoic C23:0, Tryptophan, Tungsten, Tyrosine, Uranium, Urea, Urine Creatinine, Vaccenic 18:1 n7, Valine, Vanadium, Vanilmandelic Acid, Xanthurenic Acid, Zinc