Dietary fatty acids are metabolized into fuel sources using beta-oxidation. Fatty acid conversion into Acetyl-CoA requires transport across the mitochondrial membrane via the carnitine shuttle. When beta-oxidation is impaired, fats are metabolized using an alternate pathway called omega-oxidation. Omega-oxidation results in elevated levels of dicarboxylic acids such as adipic acid and suberic acid. Impaired beta-oxidation occurs in carnitine deficiency or enzymatic dysfunction due to lack of nutrient cofactors. Vitamin B2 and magnesium play a role in optimizing beta-oxidation.
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Elevated levels of adipic and suberic acid may reflect insufficient carnitine or lack of nutrient cofactors for proper beta-oxidation.
Clinical Associations: Increased omega-oxidation metabolites can be seen in ketosis, insulin resistance, diabetes, fasting, or low carbohydrate intake. Elevations of suberic and adipic acid can lead to further mitochondrial dysfunction by injuring the cell membrane and producing free-radical damage.
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% Omega-3s, % Omega-6s, % Omega-9s, % Saturated Fats, 1-Methylhistidine, 3-Hydroxyisovaleric Acid, 3-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 3-Hydroxypropionic Acid, 3-Methyl-4-OH-phenylglycol, 3-Methylhistidine, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic Acid, 5-OH-indoleacetic Acid, 8-OHdG (urine), a-Amino-N-butyric Acid, a-Aminoadipic Acid, a-Hydroxybutyric Acid, a-Hydroxyisobutyric Acid (from MTBE), a-Keto-b-Methylvaleric Acid, a-Ketoadipic Acid, a-Ketoglutaric Acid, a-Ketoisocaproic Acid, a-Ketoisovaleric Acid, a-Ketophenylacetic Acid (from Styrene), a-Linolenic (ALA) 18:3 n3, AA / EPA (20:4 n6 / 20:5 n3), Adipic Acid, Alanine, Aluminum, Anserine (dipeptide), Antimony, Arachidic C20:0, Arachidonic (AA) 20:4 n6, Arginine, Arsenic, Asparagine, Aspartic Acid, b-Alanine, b-Aminoisobutyric Acid, b-OH-b-Methylglutaric Acid, b-OH-Butyric Acid, Barium, Behenic C22:0, Benzoic Acid, Bismuth, Cadmium, Calcium, Carnosine (dipeptide), Cesium, Chromium, cis-Aconitic Acid, Citramalic Acid, Citric Acid, Citrulline, Cobalt, Copper, Creatinine, Creatinine Concentration (Amino Acids FMV), Cystathionine, Cysteine, Cystine, D-Arabinitol, Dihomo-g-linolenic (DGLA) 20:3 n6, Dihydroxyphenylpropionic Acid (DHPPA), Docosahexaenoic (DHA) 22:6 n3, Docosapentaenoic (DPA) 22:5 n3, Docosatetraenoic (DTA) 22:4 n6, Eicosadienoic 20:2 n6, Eicosapentaenoic (EPA) 20:5 n3, Elaidic 18:1 n9t, Ethanolamine, Formiminoglutamic Acid (FIGlu), g-Aminobutyric Acid, g-Linolenic (GLA) 18:3 n6, Gadolinium, Gallium, Glutamic Acid, Glutamine, Glutaric Acid, Glyceric Acid, Glycine, Glycolic Acid, Hippuric Acid, Histidine, Homovanillic Acid, Indoleacetic Acid, Iron, Isocitric Acid, Isoleucine, Isovalerylglycine, Kynurenic / Quinolinic Ratio, Kynurenic Acid, Lactic Acid, Lead, Leucine, Lignoceric C24:0, Linoleic (LA) 18:2 n6, Linoleic / DGLA (18:2 n6 / 20:3 n6), Lipid Peroxides (urine), Lithium, Lysine, Magnesium, Malic Acid, Manganese, Margaric C17:0, Mercury, Methionine, Methylmalonic Acid, Molybdenum, Nervonic 24:1 n9, Nickel, Niobium, Oleic 18:1 n9, Omega-3 Index, Omega-6s /Omega-3s, Ornithine, Orotic Acid, Oxalic Acid, Palmitic C16:0, Palmitoleic 16:1 n7, Pentadecanoic C15:0, Phenylacetic Acid, Phenylalanine, Phosphoethanolamine, Phosphoserine, Platinum, Potassium, Proline, Pyroglutamic Acid, Pyruvic Acid, Quinolinic Acid, Rubidium, Sarcosine, Selenium, Serine, Stearic C18:0, Strontium, Suberic Acid, Succinic Acid, Sulfur, Tartaric Acid, Taurine, Thallium, Thorium, Threonine, Tin, Tricosanoic C23:0, Tryptophan, Tungsten, Tyrosine, Uranium, Urea, Urine Creatinine, Vaccenic 18:1 n7, Valine, Vanadium, Vanilmandelic Acid, Xanthurenic Acid, Zinc