Aluminum

Optimal Result: 0 - 22.3 ug/g creat.

SOURCES:

Found in virtually all food and food additives, water, air, and soil. Also found in antacids, antiperspirants, cosmetics, astringents, cans, pots, pans, siding, roofing, and foil.

NUTRIENT INTERACTIONS:

Calcium deficiency, citric acid, and low gut pH causes increased Al absorption.

Low iron intake increases Aluminum absorption (rat study).

Selenium may be protective against Aluminum.

Al reduces phosphorus and fluoride absorption.

Al disrupts lipid membrane fluidity, altering Fe, magnesium, and calcium homeostasis, causing oxidative stress.

References:

- Greger J. Aluminum metabolism. Ann Rev Nutr. 1993;13(1):43-63.

- Hayes AW. Principles and methods of toxicology. Crc Press; 2007.

- Cannata JB, Fernandez-Soto I, Fernandez-Menendez MJ, et al. Role of iron metabolism in absorption and cellular uptake of aluminum. Kidney Int. 1991;39(4):799-803.

- Schwalfenberg GK, Genuis SJ. Vitamin D, Essential Minerals, and Toxic Elements: Exploring Interactions between Nutrients and Toxicants in Clinical Medicine. ScientificWorldJournal. 2015;2015:318595-318595.

- Goyer RA. Toxic and essential metal interactions. Ann Rev Nutr. 1997;17(1):37-50.

- Mailloux RJ, Lemire J, Appanna VD. Hepatic response to aluminum toxicity: dyslipidemia and liver diseases. Exp Cell Res. 2011;317(16):2231-2238.

- Yang SJ, Huh JW, Lee JE, Choi SY, Kim TU, Cho SW. Inactivation of human glutamate dehydrogenase by aluminum. Cell Molec Life Sci. 2003;60(11):2538-2546.

- E. H. Jeffery KAEBJCJLG. SYSTEMIC ALUMINUM TOXICITY: EFFECTS ON BONE, HEMATOPOIETIC TISSUE, AND KIDNEY. J Toxicol Environ Health. 1996;48(6):649-666.

What does it mean if your Aluminum result is too high?

PHYSIOLOGIC EFFECTS:

- Accumulates in bone, liver, kidney, and spleen.

- Causes mitochondrial dysfunction due to Krebs cycle enzyme activity disturbance and electron transport chain alterations.

- Alters the enzymes in the glutamate system, which may be one of the causes of aluminum-induced neurotoxicity.

- Parathyroid hormone levels and osteoclast activity are disrupted by Aluminum.

- Al can also slow calcification of new bone and deposits in the bone matrix in place of calcium.

- Disrupts normal iron homeostasis and iron-dependent cellular metabolism. 

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE:

Anemia, CNS functional, sensory and cognitive alterations, and bone abnormalities like osteodystrophy.

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