Found naturally in the environment, air, soil, water.
Found in lead storage batteries, solder, sheet and pipe metal, pewter, bearings and castings, paints, ceramics, fireworks, plastic enamels, metal and glass.
Sometimes used medically to treat parasites.
- ATSDR. ToxFAQs for Antimony. Toxic Substances Portal 2020; https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/toxfaqs/tf.asp?id=331&tid=58 2020.
- Bailly R, Lauwerys R, Buchet JP, Mahieu P, Konings J. Experimental and human studies on antimony metabolism: their relevance for the biological monitoring of workers exposed to inorganic antimony. Br J Industr Med. 1991;48(2):93-97.
- ATSDR. Toxicological Profile for Antimony and Compounds. In. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. Atlanta, GA2019.
- Vahle J. Safety assessment including current and emerging issues in toxicologic pathology. Haschek and Rousseaux’s Handbook of Toxicologic Pathology, 3rd edn Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 2013:1051-1073.
Highest accumulation in the lungs, GI tract, RBC’s, liver, kidney, bone, spleen, and thyroid. It is excreted in urine and feces, and partially in bile after conjugation with glutathione. Trivalent antimony is predominantly excreted in feces while pentavalent antimony in urine.
Binds to sulfhydryl groups with subsequent inhibition of enzymes involved in cellular respiration and carbohydrate/protein metabolism.
Lung and skin irritation, cardiac and EKG alterations, GI symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, ulceration. In animal studies, antimony can decrease serum glucose levels.
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