Anserine (beta-alanyl-3-methyl-histidine) is a urinary biomarker from the consumption of poultry and fish. It is a dipeptide consisting of the amino acids 1-methylhistidine and beta-alanine. The enzyme carnosineN-methyl transferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) on carnosine to form anserine. Anserine acts as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and pH buffer. It can reduce blood sugar and affect renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Anserine is measured in FMV urine only.
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Anserine can be decreased with low protein intake, as seen in vegetarian and vegan diets.
High intake of poultry and fish can cause elevated levels of anserine. Additionally, because anserine is a dipeptide, elevated levels may also reflect incomplete protein digestion into its constituent molecules of beta-alanine and 3-methyl-histadine. Carnosinase is a zinc- and manganese-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes both carnosine and anserine. Functional need for zinc and manganese may elevate both markers.
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