Anserine (dipeptide)

Optimal Result: 0.7 - 76.1 micromol/g creatinine.

Anserine (beta-alanyl-3-methyl-histidine) is a urinary biomarker from the consumption of poultry and fish. It is a dipeptide consisting of the amino acids 1-methylhistidine and beta-alanine. The enzyme carnosineN-methyl transferase catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group of S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) on carnosine to form anserine. Anserine acts as an antioxidant, free radical scavenger, and pH buffer. It can reduce blood sugar and affect renal sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. Anserine is measured in FMV urine only.

References:

- Cuparencu C, Pratico G, Hemeryck LY, et al. Biomarkers of meat and seafood intake: an extensive literature review. Genes Nutr. 2019;14:35.

- Cheung W, Keski-Rahkonen P, Assi N, et al. A metabolomic study of biomarkers of meat and fish intake. Am J Clin Nutr. 2017;105(3):600-608

- Sadikali F, Darwish R, Watson WC. Carnosinase activity of human gastrointestinal mucosa. Gut. 1975;16(8):585-589.

- Abe H, Okuma E, Sekine H, Maeda A, Yoshiue S. Human urinary excretion of L-histidine-related compounds after ingestion of several meats and fish muscle. Int J Biochem. 1993;25(9):1245-1249.

- Derave W, De Courten B, Baba SP. An update on carnosine and anserine research. Amino Acids. 2019;51(1):1-4.

- Bellia F, Vecchio G, Rizzarelli E. Carnosinases, their substrates and diseases. Molecules. 2014;19(2):2299-2329.

- Boldyrev AA, Aldini G, Derave W. Physiology and pathophysiology of carnosine. Physiol Rev. 2013;93(4):1803- 1845.

- Peters V, Klessens CQ, Baelde HJ, et al. Intrinsic carnosine metabolism in the human kidney. Amino Acids. 2015;47(12):2541-2550.

What does it mean if your Anserine (dipeptide) result is too low?

Anserine can be decreased with low protein intake, as seen in vegetarian and vegan diets.

What does it mean if your Anserine (dipeptide) result is too high?

High intake of poultry and fish can cause elevated levels of anserine. Additionally, because anserine is a dipeptide, elevated levels may also reflect incomplete protein digestion into its constituent molecules of beta-alanine and 3-methyl-histadine. Carnosinase is a zinc- and manganese-dependent enzyme that hydrolyzes both carnosine and anserine. Functional need for zinc and manganese may elevate both markers.

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