Optimal Result: 0 - 999 Units.

Streptococcus is a member of Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria (LAB) that belonged to Firmicutes phylum. Many strains of Streptococcus are non-pathogenic and occur as commensal flora on the skin, the oral cavity, nasopharynx, upper respiratory tract, urogenital, and gastrointestinal tracts. Some species of Streptococcus are responsible for numerous human inflammatory diseases including pharyngitis, meningitis, endocarditis, necrotyzing fasciitis, and those that are immune mediated, such as acute glumeronephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and colon cancer. Interaction of some virulence factors of Streptococci with immune cells could elicit inflammatory response in different organs. Association of Streptococcusbovis with IBD and colon cancer was reported in previous studies. In one study, it was shown that Streptococci are the predominant group of bacteria in inflamed colonic mucosa of CD patients; however this association was not verified in patients with UC. Contrary to these results reduction of Streptococci in IBD patients were observed in studies that investigated health-beneficial effects of these bacteria. 

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References:

- Relative Abundance of Streptococcus spp. and its Association with Disease Activity in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Patients Compared with Controls [L]

- Herrera P, Kwon YM, Ricke SC. Ecology and pathogenicity of gastrointestinal Streptococcus bovis. Anaerobe. 2009; 15(1-2) : 44 -54 [DOI] [PubMed]

- Rooks MG, Veiga P, Wardwell-Scott LH, Tickle T, Segata N, Michaud M, et al. Gut microbiome composition and function in experimental colitis during active disease and treatment-induced remission. ISME J. 2014; 8(7) : 1403 -17 [DOI] [PubMed]

- Henneke P, Morath S, Uematsu S, Weichert S, Pfitzenmaier M, Takeuchi O, et al. Role of lipoteichoic acid in the phagocyte response to group B streptococcus. J Immunol. 2005; 174(10) : 6449 -55 [DOI] [PubMed]

- Dinis M, Plainvert C, Kovarik P, Longo M, Fouet A, Poyart C. The innate immune response elicited by Group A Streptococcus is highly variable among clinical isolates and correlates with the emm type. PLoS One. 2014; 9(7) [DOI] [PubMed]

- Al-Jashamy K, Murad A, Zeehaida M, Rohaini M, Hasnan J. Prevalence of colorectal cancer associated with Streptococcus bovis among inflammatory bowel and chronic gastrointestinal tract disease patients. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2010; 11(6) : 1765 -8 [PubMed]

- Fyderek K, Strus M, Kowalska-Duplaga K, Gosiewski T, Wedrychowicz A, Jedynak-Wasowicz U, et al. Mucosal bacterial microflora and mucus layer thickness in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease. World J Gastroenterol. 2009; 15(42) : 5287 -94 [DOI] [PubMed]

What does it mean if your Streptococcus spp. result is too high?

Many adults carry Streptococcus in their bodies, usually in the bowel, vagina, rectum, bladder or throat, and have no signs or symptoms.

In some cases, however, group Streptococcus can cause a urinary tract infection or more-serious infections such as blood infections (bacteremia) or pneumonia.

Signs and symptoms might include:

- Fever

- Sluggishness and a lack of energy (lethargy)

- Difficulty breathing

- Irritability

- Jaundice

If you have signs or symptoms of a Streptococcus infection — particularly if you're pregnant, you have a chronic medical condition or you're older than 65 — contact your doctor right away.

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A recent study [L] has shown that there was a relative increase in abundance of Streptococcus spp. among IBD (=Inflammatory bowel disease) patients compared with the control group. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes various forms of disorders; however crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are 2 major types of this disease. 

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