Optimal Result: 0 - 4999999 Units.

Gram-negative bacteria in the Proteobacteria phylum. High levels may indicate increased intestinal inflammatory activity.

Autoimmune Association: Rheumatoid arthritis

Citrobacter is considered a commensal bacteria; however, depending on the clinical picture, it is also known to be an opportunistic pathogen.

Citrobacter species are found in water, soil, food, and commonly in the human intestinal tract.

Although considered a commensal, some Citrobacter isolates have virulent toxins, such as Shiga-like toxins, heat-stable toxins, and cholera B toxin B subunit homologs.

Citrobacter is most often asymptomatic but can cause diarrhea.

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References:

Wang J-T, Chang S-C. Citrobacter species. In:2016. [L]

Lan R, Xu J. Genetic diversity, multidrug resistance and virulence of Citrobacter freundii from diarrheal patients and healthy individuals. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2018;8:233. [L]

Liu L, Chen D, Liu L, et al. Genetic Diversity, Multidrug Resistance, and Virulence of Citrobacter freundii From Diarrheal Patients and Healthy Individuals. Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology. 2018;8:233-233. [L]

What does it mean if your Citrobacter spp. result is too high?

High levels may indicate increased intestinal inflammatory activity.

Although considered a commensal, some Citrobacter isolates have virulent toxins, such as Shiga-like toxins, heat-stable toxins, and cholera B toxin B subunit homologs.

Citrobacter is most often asymptomatic but can cause diarrhea.

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