Synapsin I, also known as phosphosynaspin I, is a major immunoreactive protein found in most neurons of the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a member of a group of neuronal phosphoproteins involved in the regulation of neurotransmitter release. Synapsin I is present in the nerve terminal of axons, specifically in the membranes of synaptic vesicles.
- Demyelinating Diseases
- Inhibited Neurotransmitter Release
- Multiple Sclerosis
Gliadin (a protein of wheat)
1. Alaedini, et al. Immune cross-reactivity in Celiac disease: Anti-gliadin antibodies bind to neuronal synapsin I. J Immunol, 2007; 178:6590-6595.
2. Bitsch, et al. Autoantibody synthesis in primary progressive multiple sclerosis patients treated with interferon beta-1b. J Neurol, 2004; 251:1498-1501.
3. Bustos, et al. Synapsin I is expressed in epithelial cells: localization to a unique tran-Golgi compartment. J Cell Sci, 2001; 114:3695-3704.
4. Gitlits, et al. Synapsin I identified as a novel brain-specific autoantigen. J Invest Med, 2001; 49(3):276-283.
5. Vojdani and Tarash. Cross-reaction between gliadin and different food and tissue antigens, Food Nutri Sci, 2013; 4:20-32.
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Antibodies against Synapsin can contribute to neuronal damage as well as non-neuronal tissues.
There is a similarity between Synapsin I and Gliadin (a protein of wheat) in that they both have high frequencies of proline and glutamine residues, thus, cross-reactivity occurs between Synapsin I and Gliadin.
This molecular mimicry triggers autoimmunity resulting in neurological deficits often associated with gluten sensitivity and, in genetically susceptible patients, with Celiac Disease. Non-neuronal Synapsin I has also been identified in the liver and is thought to be associated with the trans-Golgi network-derived compartment. This placement suggests that Synapsin I plays a role in modulating post-trans-Golgi network trafficking pathways of secreted proteins.
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21-Hydroxylase (Adrenal Cortex), Alpha + Beta Tubulin IgG+IgA, Alpha + Beta Tubulin IgM, Alpha-Myosin, Arthritic Peptide, ASCA + ANCA, Asialoganglioside IgG+IgA, Asialoganglioside IgM, Cerebellar IgG+IgA, Cerebellar IgM, Collagen Complex, Cytochrome P450 (Hepatocyte), Fibulin, Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase 65 (GAD 65), Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Autoantibody, IA-2 Autoantibody, Insulin + Islet Cell Antigen, Intrinsic Factor, Myelin Basic Protein IgG + IgA, Myelin Basic Protein IgM, Myocardial Peptide, Osteocyte, Ovary/Testis, Parietal Cell + ATPase, Phospholipid, Platelet Glycoprotein, Synapsin IgG+IgA, Synapsin IgM, Thyroglobulin, Thyroglobulin IgG, Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO), Thyroid Peroxidase IgG, Tropomyosin