ANTIBODIES ASSOCIATED WITH:
This test by itself is not diagnostic for any condition or disease
Alcoholic Liver Disease
Infectious agent exposure
PANDAS / ANDAS / OCD
Recent Onset Type 1 Diabetes Toxin Exposure
Known Cross-Reactions: Streptococcal Protein
Function: Tubulin is a building block protein and a major component of a cell’s internal cytoskeleton, called microtubules. These structures play key roles in many cellular functions including, interaction with guanine, lateral contacts, interaction with beta and gamma phosphates of nucleotides, interaction with gamma phosphate, longitudinal contacts, backbone interactions with α and β phosphates, hydrophobic contact of conserved residues, nucleotide contacts, MAP-binding domain and acetylation site.
Tubulin’s basic function as a component of microtubules explains its appearance in a variety of unrelated disorders, which can affect organ tissues, as well as, neuronal structures. Quantitative increases in antitubulin antibodies are thought to be due to autoimmune reactions to the patient’s own tubulin, or to the polyclonal activation of B cells associated with diseases and disorders listed above. A surprising similarity between the structures of tubulin and bacterial protein FtsZ (filamenting temperature-sensitive mutant Z) has spawned a variety of studies linking infectious agent exposure with tubulin antibodies.
Elevated antitubulin antibody levels were found in sera from patients who presented with a number of infections, including leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and leprosy.
Tubulin may be altered during the course of an infection, thus rendering it immunogenic. Infectious agents due to antigenic similarity may illicit a cross-reaction autoimmune response. Tubulin cross-reacts with Streptococcal protein, which can lead to autoimmunity and the neurological dysfunction associated with PANDAS/ANDAS/OCD.
Tubulin is also a neuronal target of autoantibodies in Sydenham’s Chorea, in which these autoantibodies alter the blood-brain barrier, thus increasing permeability of the blood-brain barrier. This event results in cell signaling, dopamine release, and movement and neuropsychiatric abnormalities. Antibodies against nerve cell Tubulin have been demonstrated in patients with toxic chemical exposure, including mercury and other heavy metals. Antitubulin antibodies are also detected in a high ratio of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes, but decrease or disappear during the course of the disease. Anti-tubulin antibody was detected in 56% of patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and in 41% of patients with Graves’ disease.
1. Howard, et al. Antibodies to tubulin in patients with parasitic infections. Clin Exp Immunol, 1987; 68:78-85.
2. Keskin, et al. Relating molecular flexibility to function: a case study of tubulin. Biophysical J, 2002; 83:663-680.
3. Kirvan, et al. Tubulin is a neuronal target of autoantibodies in Sydenham’s Chorea. J Immunol, 2007;178:7412-7421.
4. Pennisi. Structure of key cytoskeletal protein tubulin revealed. Science, 1998; 279:176-177.
5. Rousset, et al. Anti-tubulin antibodies in autoimmune thyroid disorders. Clin Exp Immunol, 1983; 52:325-332.
6. Rousset, et al. Anti-tubulin antibodies in recent onset Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus: comparison with islet cell antibodies. Diabetologia, 1984; 27(4):427-432.
7. Vojdani. Obsessive compulsive disorder and differentiation between non-autoimmune OCD and the autoimmune version of the disease called PANDAS. Lagitudes, 6(2):1-6.
- Elevated antitubulin antibody levels were found in sera from patients who presented with a number of infections, including leishmaniasis, African trypanosomiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and leprosy.
- Antitubulin antibodies are also detected in a high ratio of patients with recent onset type 1 diabetes, but decrease or disappear during the course of the disease. Anti-tubulin antibody was detected in 56% of patients with Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and in 41% of patients with Graves’ disease.
Our specialized data entry service is designed to seamlessly integrate your laboratory results into your private dashboard. Just send in your lab test results—whether it's an image or a file—and our skilled data entry team will handle the rest. We accommodate various file formats like PDFs, JPGs, and Excel.
The first report is complimentary. After that, the data entry service is priced at $15 per report, unless it's part of your subscribed plan. It's an ideal solution whether you have numerous reports to upload or if your schedule doesn't permit self-data entry.
We strive to make the data entry process easy for you. Whether by offering dozens of templates to choose from that pre-populate the most popular laboratory panels or by giving you instant feedback on the entered values. Our data entry forms are an easy, fast, and convenient way to enter the reports yourself. There is no limit on how many lab reports you can upload.
track personal results
track multiple client's results
own it for life
for health professionals
for personal lab results
own it for life
Level up your lab report analysis with our Pro plan, built for health practitioners like you.
Health Business Account
Unlock additional Pro plans when you sign up.