Choline (Serum)

Optimal Result: 6.8 - 31 nmol/ML.

Physiological Function:

Choline is metabolized within cellular mitochondria resulting in production of trimethylglycine; TMG plays a role in supporting methyl donation processes either directly (methylating homocysteine) or indirectly through supporting production of S-adenosyl methionine (SAMe). Choline is converted into acetylcholine (ACh).

Common food sources:

Beef liver, eggs, soybeans, scallops, chicken breast

Correlation between serum and WBC ("Cellular") levels:

Serum levels normal/excess and...

WBC - deficient:

Short term status of micronutrients is optiomal, but cellular absorption may be a problem. 

Possible interventions:

- Increase dietary intake of nutrient

- increase supplementation dosage

- consider status of synergistic nutrients for cellular absorption

- consider levels of oxidative stress on nutrient depletion

- consider follow up testing to identify the source of malabsorption

What does it mean if your Choline (Serum) result is too low?

How it gets depleted:

Depletion of choline is typically not a concern, and limited information exists on how depletion would happen primarily, however, lower intake of choline may lead to inefficient methylation.

Clinical Manifestations of Depletion:

Deficiency in dietary choline is known to increase hepatic triglyceride accumulation. This results in lower blood triglycerides, but increased accumulation of triglycerides in the liver.

Subjects with a mutation in the MTHFR enzyme seem to place more burden on choline in methylation cycles. Depletion of choline can also lead to muscle damage.

Food sources:

Eggs, liver, and peanuts are the best sources of choline. Poultry, fish, and cruciferous veggies are good sources of choline. 

Supplement Options:

 The AI for choline is 425 mg/day for women and 550 mg/day for men.
→ The UL is 3,500 mg/day.

Choline bitartrate is the most common supplemental form of choline for most general purposes, such as liver health. CDP-Choline and Alpha-GPC are commonly used for nootropic purposes.

Supplemental choline can enhance systemic methylation. Excessive consumption of choline ≥7,500 mg has been associated with low blood pressure, excessive sweating, fishy body odor, and gastrointestinal side effects.

Correlation between serum and WBC ("Cellular") levels:

Serum levels deficient and...

WBC - normal:

Long term nutrient status is optiomal, but short term needs improvement. 

Possible interventions:

- increase dietary intake of nutrient

- increase supplementation dosage

- medications may have an effect on depletion

WBC - deficient:

Short term and long term status of micronutrients is not optimal, suggesting low dietary intake and both intestinal and cellular malabsorption as possible causes. 

Possible interventions:

- Increase dietary intake of nutrient

- increase supplementation dosage

- medications may have an effect on depletion

- consider follow up testing to identify the source of malabsorption

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