Citramalic acid and tartaric acid are yeast metabolites that are also influenced by dietary intake of fruits, wine, and sugars.
Common Dietary Sources:
Apples, cranberries, sugar beets
- Sugimoto N, Forsline P, Beaudry R. Volatile profiles of members of the USDA Geneva Malus Core Collection: utility in evaluation of a hypothesized biosynthetic pathway for esters derived from 2-methylbutanoate and 2-methylbutan-1-ol. J Agric Food Chem. 2015;63(7):2106-2116.
- Hulme AC. The isolation of l-citramalic acid from the peel of the apple fruit. Biochim Biophys acta. 1954;14(1):36-43.
- Liu H, Garrett TJ, Su Z, Khoo C, Gu L. UHPLC-Q-Orbitrap-HRMSbased global metabolomics reveal metabolome modifications in plasma of young women after cranberry juice consumption. J Nutri Biochem. 2017;45:67-76.
- Khorassani R, Hettwer U, Ratzinger A, Steingrobe B, Karlovsky P, Claassen N. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus. BMC Plant Biol. 2011;11:121.
- Marconi O, Floridi S, Montanari L. Organic acids profile in tomato juice by HPLC with UV detection. J Food Qual. 2007;30(2):253-266.
Though often used by clinicians to gain insight into yeast overgrowth, it should be noted that fruit intake can influence levels. High levels may simply reflect a high dietary fruit intake. A high intake of sugars feeds gastrointestinal yeast, which can promote yeast overgrowth. When these markers are elevated, and dietary influences have been ruled out, a stool test may be warranted to evaluate the presence of yeast in the GI tract.
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