Atherosclerosis

Biomarkers related to this condition:

HDL Large

This test identifies 5 subclasses of HDL, 1 is identified as the large HDL subclass. Decreased levels of the large HDL subclass are associated with a 1.8-fold increased risk for CVD. Large HDL particles are functionally associated with an antioxidant

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HDL Size

Reduced mean HDL size is associated with cardiovascular disease. Since HDL-C is primarily carried in the circulation by large, lipid-rich HDL particles, the inverse relationship between HDL size and cardiovascular risk can be secondary to those estab

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HDL(Protective)

HDL-2

HDLs comprise a family of heterogeneous particles that vary by size, density, composition, and functionality. Two distinct HDL subfractions, large buoyant HDL2 and small dense HDL3, might exert differential effects on atherosclerosis and display

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HDL-3

HDL3-C subfractions are significantly and inversely associated with arterial stiffness, suggesting that HDL subfractions are likely more important than HDL-C in preventing cardiovascular disease. Broadly, HDL can be distinguished into two subfract

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HDL-C

High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) or “good” cholesterol is known to decrease the risk of heart attack and stroke by removing “bad” cholesterol from the blood. It is typically assessed through a lipid profile, w

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HDL-C/TG

The ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol/triglycerides is a calculated measure. Optimal: >0.50 Borderline: 0.25–0.50 Increased Risk: <0.25

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HDL-P

HDL-P, a measurement of total HDL particle number concentration, may be a better marker of residual risk than chemically measured high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, the so-called “good” cholesterol) or apolipoprotein A-1 (apoA-1

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Large HDL-P

High-density lipoproteins (HDL) comprise particles of different size, density and composition and their vasoprotective functions may differ. In the cardiovascular field, both HDL cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration and HDL particle size are independ

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Large VLDL-P

What are Large VLDL Particles (Large VLDL-P)? Large VLDL particles, also known as very-low-density lipoprotein particles, play a significant role in lipid metabolism and cardiovascular health. VLDL particles are primarily composed of triglycerides

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LDL Medium

This test measures the number of particles in each of the 8 LDL subclasses. Six of these 8 subclasses are small LDL subclass particles. These smaller particles are associated with rapid uptake into the endothelium contributing to accelerated atherosc

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LDL Particle Number

LDL-P (LDL particle number) measures the actual number of LDL particles (particle concentration, nmol/L). It appears that LDL-P may be a stronger predictor of cardiovascular events than LDL-C. Lipoproteins are particles that transport fats through

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LDL Pattern

LDL patterns A and B refer to the size of LDL cholesterol particles in the blood. Some doctors believe that small LDL cholesterol particles in the blood may pose a greater risk for developing atherosclerosis and heart attacks than the absolute level

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LDL Peak Size

An average size of LDL peak subclass particles measuring less than 218 angstroms, as measured with Ion Mobility, is associated with a 1.35-fold increased risk for CVD. Contributing factors: Genetics/demographics: - Genetic predisposition

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LDL Size

Small LDL-P and LDL Size are associated with CVD risk, but not after LDL-P is taken into account.

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LDL Small

Small LDL subclass particles cause plaque buildup to progress much faster because they enter the artery wall more easily than large LDL particles. A predominance of smaller LDL particles, referred to as Pattern B lipid phenotype, represents an athero

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LDL-C

Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), or “bad” cholesterol, is known to increase risk of heart attack and stroke when levels become elevated in the blood. LDL-C is measured as a part of a lipid profile, which is used to determine y

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LDL-P

Lipoproteins are particles that transport fats throughout the body. These particles are essential and carry a combination of proteins, vitamins, cholesterol, triglyceride, and phospholipid molecules. The composition of a lipoprotein particle chang

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LDL/HDL Cholesterol Ratio

LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is the ratio of two types of lipids in the blood. LDL stands for low density lipoprotein or “bad cholesterol” and HDL stands for high density lipoprotein or “good cholesterol.”

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LDL1 Pattern A

LDL2 Pattern A

LDL3 Pattern B

LDL4 Pattern B

Non-HDL Cholesterol

Your non-HDL cholesterol result refers to your total cholesterol value minus your HDL cholesterol. Your lipid panel results normally include four numbers: - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; - high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol;

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Non-HDL Cholesterol

Your non-HDL cholesterol result refers to your total cholesterol value minus your HDL cholesterol. Your lipid panel results normally include four numbers: - low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol; - high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol;

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Oxidized LDL

Oxidized LDL is LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) that has been modified by oxidation. Oxidized LDL triggers inflammation leading to the formation of plaque in the arteries, also known as atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL may also play

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Oxidized LDL : LDL-C

OxLDL (Oxidized LDL)

Oxidized LDL is LDL cholesterol (the “bad” cholesterol) that has been modified by oxidation. Oxidized LDL triggers inflammation leading to the formation of plaque in the arteries, also known as atherosclerosis. Oxidized LDL may also play

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Small dense LDL Cholesterol

Small dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL-c) has been established to be highly associated with metabolic disorder. Small dense LDL cholesterol (sdLDL-c), is a distinct LDL cholesterol subclass, which is associated with raised TG and decreased HDL-c level

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Small dense LDL-C : LDL-C

Small LDL-P

These particles are associated with an increased risk of heart disease; more of these small particles lead to greater risk. Your Small LDL particle score can vary widely, with a lower score being much better. 

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Total Cholesterol/HDL Ratio

Blood

The total cholesterol /HDL ratio is the proportion of one type of cholesterol to all the other cholesterol in the blood. Total cholesterol includes three substances HDL, LDL, and VLDL. 

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Triglycerides to HDL Ratio

The Triglycerides to HDL (High-Density Lipoprotein) Ratio is a metric that is often used in the medical field to evaluate cardiovascular risk. This ratio is calculated by dividing the triglyceride level by the HDL cholesterol level, both of which are

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VLDL Cholesterol Cal

What is VLDL? VLDL stands for very-low-density lipoprotein. Your liver makes VLDL and releases it into your bloodstream. The VLDL particles mainly carry triglycerides, another type of fat, to your tissues. VLDL is similar to LDL cholesterol, but L

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VLDL Size

Special proteins, apoproteins, play an important role in moving lipoproteins around the body and facilitating their interactions with other cells. The most important of these are the apoB class, residing on VLDL, IDL, and LDL particles, and

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VLDL-3

VLDL-C/TG

This is a ratio calculated by dividing very low density lipoprotein cholesterol by triglycerides. A high ratio is linked to abnormal lipid metabolism and increased risk of CVD events. Optimal: <0.20 Borderline: 0.20 – 0.30 Increa

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