What is Gamma Globulin?
Gamma globulin is a major class of immunoglobulins found in the blood, including many of the most common antibodies circulating in the blood.
The gamma globulin band consists of 5 immunoglobulins:
- 80% is immunoglobulin G (IgG)
- 15% is immunoglobulin A (IgA)
- 5% is immunoglobulin M (IgM)
- 0.2% is immunoglobulin D (IgD)
- A trace is immunoglobulin E (IgE)
In order to remember which immunoglobulins the gamma globulin band consists of, just remember the word: G.A.M.E.D.
Gamma Globulin is a somewhat ambiguous term that still remains in common usage despite attempts to substitute ‘immunoglobulin’ in its place.
What are immunoglobulins?
Immunoglobulins function as antibodies in the immune response.
– IgG (fights bacterial & viral infections)
– IgA (protects places mucous membranes – mouth, nose, lungs, intestines and saliva and tears)
– IgM (first antibody made by the body to fight a new infection)
– IgE (responsible for immunity to parasites and allergic reactions)
– IgD (scientists are still discovering it’s function – one theory is it signals activation of B Cells in immune response)
0-<5 months: 100-334 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 164-588 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 246-904 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 313-1,170 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 295-1,156 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 386-1,470 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 462-1,682 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 503-1,719 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 509-1,580 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 487-1,327 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 767-1,590 mg/dL
0-<5 months: 7-37 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 16-50 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 27-66 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 36-79 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 27-246 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 29-256 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 34-274 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 42-295 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 52-319 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 60-337 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 61-356 mg/dL
0-<5 months: 26-122 mg/dL
5-<9 months: 32-132 mg/dL
9-<15 months: 40-143 mg/dL
15-<24 months: 46-152 mg/dL
2-<4 years: 37-184 mg/dL
4-<7 years: 37-224 mg/dL
7-<10 years: 38-251 mg/dL
10-<13 years: 41-255 mg/dL
13-<16 years: 45-244 mg/dL
16-<18 years: 49-201 mg/dL
> or =18 years: 37-286 mg/dL
What is a Globulin Test? https://medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003544.htm
It's important to note that a low gamma globulin score alone is not sufficient for diagnosis.
A low gamma globulin score on a protein electrophoresis test indicates that the level of gamma globulins in the blood serum is lower than the normal range. Gamma globulins, also known as immunoglobulins, are an essential part of the immune system, responsible for fighting off infections and foreign substances in the body. They play a crucial role in defending against viruses and bacteria, providing immunity against diseases.
The protein electrophoresis test is used to measure the levels of different types of proteins, including globulins, in the blood serum. There are four main types of globulins: alpha 1, alpha 2, beta, and gamma. The serum protein electrophoresis test specifically measures the levels of gamma globulins and other trace proteins present in the blood serum.
A low gamma globulin score may be indicative of certain health conditions or factors. Possible causes of low gamma globulin levels include:
→ Immunodeficiency: Low gamma globulins can weaken the immune system's ability to fight infections and make the individual more susceptible to various diseases.
→ Certain Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions, such as autoimmune diseases or inflammatory disorders, may be associated with decreased gamma globulin levels.
→ Malnutrition: Inadequate intake of essential nutrients can affect the production of globulins and other proteins in the body.
→ Liver Dysfunction: Since the liver plays a role in producing globulins, liver disorders or damage can lead to decreased gamma globulin levels.
→ Genetic Disorders: Some genetic conditions can affect the production of gamma globulins, leading to low levels in the blood.
Medications or Treatments: Certain medications or medical treatments may influence gamma globulin levels.
If you have received a low gamma globulin score on a protein electrophoresis test, it is essential to follow up with your healthcare provider for further evaluation and appropriate medical guidance.
High levels may indicate infection, inflammatory disease or immune disorders. High globulin levels may also indicate certain types of cancer, such as multiple myeloma, Hodgkin's disease, or malignant lymphoma. However, abnormal results may be due to certain medications, dehydration, or other factors. To learn what your results mean, talk to your health care provider.
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