Beta-2-Globulin, Serum

Optimal Result: 0.2 - 0.5 g/dL.

Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) is an easy, inexpensive method of separating proteins based on their net charge, size, and shape. The 2 major types of protein present in the serum are albumin and the globulin proteins.

Albumin is the major protein component of serum and represents the largest peak that lies closest to the positive electrode.

Globulins comprise a much smaller fraction of the total serum protein but represent the primary focus of interpretation of serum protein electrophoresis.

Interpretation of elevation, decreased, or visual change in different fractions can be used as a diagnostic aid for a variety of different disease states and protein abnormalities, including monoclonal gammopathies (MG).

What are globulins?

Globulins are a group of proteins in your blood. They are made in your liver by your immune system.

Globulins play an important role in:

- liver function,

- blood clotting,

and fighting infection.

There are four main types of globulins. They are called

- alpha 1,

- alpha 2,

- beta,

- and gamma.

Just as there are different types of globulins, there are different types of globulin tests.

In general, alpha and gamma globulin protein levels increase when there is inflammation in the body.

The beta fraction has two peaks labeled beta1 and beta2. Beta1 is composed mostly of transferrin, and beta2 contains beta-lipoprotein. IgA, IgM, and sometimes IgG, along with complement proteins, also can be identified in the beta fraction.


Haram K, Augensen K, Elsayed S. Serum protein pattern in normal pregnancy with special reference to acute-phase reactants. Br J Obstet Gynaecol. 1983 Feb;90(2):139-45. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.1983.tb08898.x. PMID: 6600623.

What does it mean if your Beta-2-Globulin, Serum result is too low?

Decreased beta1 or beta2 globulins:

- Protein malnutrition

What does it mean if your Beta-2-Globulin, Serum result is too high?

Increased beta1 or beta2 globulins can potentially be due/related to:


A common condition where the thyroid doesn't create and release enough thyroid hormone into your bloodstream. 

Biliary cirrhosis:

A chronic disease in which the bile ducts in your liver are slowly destroyed

Carcinoma (sometimes):

A cancer that forms in epithelial tissue. Epithelial tissue lines most of your organs, the internal passageways in your body (like your esophagus), and your skin.

Cushing’s disease:

Occurs when a pituitary adenoma, a noncancerous (benign) tumor on the pea-size pituitary gland, makes too much adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH).

Diabetes mellitus (some cases):

A disorder in which the body does not produce enough or respond normally to insulin, causing blood sugar (glucose) levels to be abnormally high.

Iron deficiency anemia:

Due to insufficient iron

Malignant hypertension:

Occurs when a sudden spike in blood pressure puts you at risk for organ damage.


A group of symptoms that indicate your kidneys are not working properly. 

Polyarteritis nodosa:

A serious inflammatory blood vessel disease.

Obstructive jaundice:

A specific type of jaundice, where symptoms develop due to a narrowed or blocked bile duct or pancreatic duct, preventing the normal drainage of bile from the bloodstream into the intestines.

Third-trimester pregnancy:

Alpha 1-, alpha 2- and beta-Globulin concentrations increase from the first trimester towards term. gamma-Globulin concentration change little during gestation.

Hyperlipoproteinemia or familial hypercholesterolemia:

A disorder in which the body has problems breaking down fats

Estrogen therapy

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