5a,3a–androstanediol is a neuroactive steroid that enhances dopamine activity, important for mood elevation.
3a-Androstanediol (often abbreviated as 3a-diol), also known as 5a-androstane-3a,17b-diol, is an endogenous inhibitory androstane neurosteroid and a weak androgen, and a major metabolite of dihydrotestosterone (DHT). As a neurosteroid, it acts as a potent positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, and has been found to have rewarding, anxiolytic, pro-sexual, and anticonvulsant effects. Relative to its isomer 3b-androstanediol, which is a potent estrogen, 3a-androstanediol has substantially lower, though still significant affinity for the estrogen receptors.
5 alpha 3 alpha androstanediol is the downstream metabolite of DHT.
It is a neuroactive steroid that freely enters the brain from the bloodstream and interacts with both GABAa and dopaminergic neurons. Its interaction with dopaminergic neurons are thought to impart the pleasure/reward pathways associated with androgens (L).
In premenopausal women high androgens [the most potent of the androgens is dihydrotestosterone (DHT), which is created from testosterone via 5a reductase)], is usually associated with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), which is closely associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. If left untreated this often progresses to diabetes and its adverse health outcomes. This condition is usually associated with one or more of the following: excessive weight, high stress, poor eating habits, sedentary lifestyle, poor sleep, and various hormonal imbalances (high insulin, high estrogens/low progesterone, high androgens, high cortisol, low thyroid). Correcting these hormonal imbalances in combination with improved lifestyle modifications usually helps reverse insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and some of the associated hormonal imbalances (e.g. high androgens and high androgen symptoms).
Elevated Adiol is usually associated with higher levels of DHT and androsterone, as well as their precursors DHEA, and rostenedione, and testosterone. Adiol is considered a neuroactive steroid that passively enters the brain from the bloodstream through the blood brain barrier. Thus, levels in body fluids outside the brain (blood, urine, saliva) are likely reflective somewhat of levels available to the CNS. Some researchers have suggested that high Adiol, resulting from high testosterone therapy, through its activation of the pleasure/reward dopam inergic pathways, is responsible for addictive effects of high dose androgens.
Adiol binds to GABAa and dopaminergic receptors in the brain. It has a similar anxiolytic (calming) effects, albeit weaker than allopregnanolone, the 5-alpha 3-alpha metabolite of progesterone. Adiol also interacts with the dopaminergic pathways in the brain and is associated with the dopamine pleasure and reward pathway. Thus, high levels of Adiol are more likely to be associated with conditions/symptoms (addiction, pleasure-thrill seeking behaviors) common to high dopamine and over-activation of the dopaminergic neurons.
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