Optimal Result: 0 - 0.01 ug/mg creatinine.

Sources of Exposure:

- Mainly by inhalation of vapors.

- Production occurs during petroleum refining.

- Primary use is as a motor fuel additive.

- Automotive emissions, poor emission-control devices on older vehicles, poor maintenance practices, diesel engine exhaust.

- Solvent in coatings, paint thinners, wood preservatives, cleaners, dry cleaners, degreasers, aerosols, pesticides, printing and inks.

- Component of white spirit, the most widely used solvent in the paint and coating industry.

- Manufacture of pharmaceuticals, asphalt products, lacquers, varnishes, dyes, perfumes.

- Occupational Exposure: scientific labs, janitor/cleaner, dry cleaning industry, automobile body and related repairers, construction laborers, house painters, screen cleaning processes, ski boots finishing, and telephone cable assembly.

- People who do considerable home maintenance work or hobby work may be exposed via inhalation or dermal contact with the solvent.


- Irritation of mucous membranes, dermatitis, dizziness, “drunkenness”, fatigue, headache, anxiety, nervousness.

- Cyanosis, cognitive and motor impairment, apnea, burst of perspiration, cardiac arrest.

- Diarrhea, abdominal pains, nausea, blurred vision.

- Low frustration tolerance, lack of initiative, apathy, depression, irritability (painter’s syndrome).

- Neurotoxic. Carcinogenic.

- Decreased erythrocyte, leukocyte and platelet counts.

Glomerulonephritis, renal dysfunction.


Metabolized in the liver by cytochrome P-450 dependent multifunction oxidase enzymes, conjugated with glucuronic acid, glycine, or sulfates for urinary excretion.

Lipophilic and may accumulate in fat and fatty tissues.

What does it mean if your 3,4-Dimethylhippurate result is too high?

3,4-Dimethylhippurate, a metabolite derived from the metabolism of trimethylbenzene compounds, can serve as a valuable biomarker to indicate potential exposure to environmental toxins like xylene and toluene. Elevated levels of 3,4-Dimethylhippurate in urine or serum samples suggest that an individual may have come into contact with these hazardous chemicals, often found in industrial solvents, paints, and gasoline. Chronic exposure to xylene and toluene can lead to a range of health effects, including neurologic symptoms, respiratory issues, and organ damage. In cases where elevated 3,4-Dimethylhippurate levels are detected, the primary treatment approach involves reducing or eliminating exposure to the toxic substances. This may entail modifying workplace practices or using protective equipment in occupational settings, as well as implementing safer storage and usage procedures in industrial and household environments. Additionally, for individuals with confirmed exposure and health concerns, medical intervention and symptom management may be necessary. Consulting a healthcare professional or toxicologist is crucial for a comprehensive evaluation, diagnosis, and guidance on mitigating exposure and managing any potential health risks associated with elevated 3,4-Dimethylhippurate levels.

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