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Very high levels of Cs in urine are often associated with the use of cesium chloride as a questionable anti-cancer treatment. Cesium is a naturally- occurring element found in rocks, soil and dust at low concentrations. It is present in the environment only in the stable form of Cs133; the radioactive isotopes 134Cs and 137Cs are not measured or reported by Doctor's Data. Natural deposits of Cs ores occur in Main, South Dakota and Manitoba (Bernic Lake), Canada. Cesium may bio-accumulate in aquatic food chains; higher levels of cesium have been found in Pacific deep-sea fish and local shellfish since the 2011 Fukoshima reactor accident. Cesium may be used in high-density drilling fluids (oil and gas industry) and may contaminate local water and vegetation; Cs has been found in cow's milk. Cesium may occur naturally in mineral waters; one study analyzed the Cs concentration in 163 mineral and thermal waters and found the level ranged from 4.5 to 148 μg per liter.
Cesium can be absorbed after oral ingestion, upon breathing contaminated air and through contact with the skin. Cesium is readily absorbed across the brush border of the intestines in a manner similar to potassium and most is eventually excreted through the urine and feces. The biological half-life of Cs in humans ranges from 15 days in infants to 100-150 days in adults.
The cesium-137 isotope is used in cancer treatments, for ventricular function and pulmonary imaging studies, industrial radiology, and for food and instrument sterilization; Cs137 agents may contain small amounts of Cs133. Non-radioactive cesium chloride may be advertised on the internet as "high pH therapy." Currently there is no support in the scientific literature for that purpose as advertised. Radioactive Cs isotopes may contaminate soil at nuclear waste sites. Cesium may be used in industry for the production of photoelectric cells, vacuum tubes, spectrographic instruments, scintillation counters, DNA biochemistry, in various optical or detecting devices.
Target organs of potential toxic effects of Cs are the liver, intestine, heart, and kidneys. Physiological effects of excessive Cs include ventricular arrhythmias and displacement of potassium from muscle cells and erythrocytes. Cesium can have significant effects on both the central and peripheral nervous systems. Cesium may cause epileptic seizures because it can share the same receptor as the excitatory bioamine glycine. Cesium can interfere with active ion transport by blocking potassium channels and also can interfere with lipid metabolism. Excessive Cs may modify plasma membrane integrity, alter cytoplasmic components and cause cytogenetic damage.
It is unlikely that children or adults would be exposed to enough Cs133 to experience any health effects that could be related to the stable Cs itself. Animals given very large doses of Cs compounds have shown changes in behavior, such as increased activity or decreased activity, but it is unlikely that a human would be exposed to enough stable Cs to cause similar effects.
The isotope Cs137 is used in radiation therapy for certain types of cancer. Other medical uses of Cs are monitoring left ventricular function with Cs137 iodide probes and monitoring pulmonary endothelial permeability with Cs137 iodide crystal mini-detectors. Again, it is emphasized that Cs measured at Doctor's Data is Cs133, not Cs137. Environmental contamination by Cs137 as a result of radioactive fallout could be a concern. Exposure to Cs may be assessed by hair elemental analysis.
Commonly used chelating agents are not effective binders of Cs.
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