Optimal Result: 0 - 4 µg/g creatinine.

Bismuth is found in alloys, catalysts, cosmetics, paints, magnets, ceramics, pharmaceuticals, x-ray contrast media,
and semiconductors. Bismuth is generally non-toxic, although very high levels may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.
Renal, neurological, and hematological problems have been associated with bismuth toxicity. Hair is not a sensitive
specimen for bismuth toxicity; blood and urine are most commonly used.

Sources:

Alloys, catalysts, ceramics cosmetics, magnets, paints, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, x-ray contrast media

Symptoms:

- Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
- Possible renal, neurological and hematological problems

Treatment:

BAL or penicillamine for chelation

What does it mean if your Bismuth result is too high?

Bismuth is generally non-toxic, although very high levels may cause nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea.

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