T2 Toxin (IgE)

Optimal Result: 0 - 0.15 Units.

T2 Toxin are trichothecene mycotoxins and are the only mycotoxins that have been used in biological warfare. They can cause diarrhea, vomiting, and intestinal hemorrhage, as well as changes in reproductive cycles and infertility. This mycotoxin is known to decrease testosterone.

Mycotoxins are highly diverse secondary metabolites produced in nature by a wide variety of fungus which causes food contamination, resulting in mycotoxicosis in animals and humans. In particular, trichothecenes mycotoxin produced by genus fusarium is agriculturally more important worldwide due to the potential health hazards they pose. It is mainly metabolized and eliminated after ingestion, yielding more than 20 metabolites with the hydroxy trichothecenes-2 toxin being the major metabolite. Trichothecene is hazardously intoxicating due to their additional potential to be topically absorbed, and their metabolites affect the gastrointestinal tract, skin, kidney, liver, and immune and hematopoietic progenitor cellular systems. 

Among trichothecenes, T-2 toxin is the most toxic fungal secondary metabolite produced by different Fusarium species. Moreover, T-2 is the most common cause of poisoning that results from the consumption of contaminated cereal-based food and feed reported among humans and animals. The food and feed most contaminated with T-2 toxin is made from wheat, barley, rye, oats, and maize. After exposition or ingestion, T-2 is immediately absorbed from the alimentary tract or through the respiratory mucosal membranes and transported to the liver as a primary organ responsible for toxin's metabolism. Depending on the age, way of exposure, and dosage, intoxication manifests by vomiting, feed refusal, stomach necrosis, and skin irritation, which is rarely observed in case of mycotoxins intoxication.


Adhikari M, Negi B, Kaushik N, Adhikari A, Al-Khedhairy AA, Kaushik NK, Choi EH. T-2 mycotoxin: toxicological effects and decontamination strategies. Oncotarget. 2017 May 16;8(20):33933-33952. doi: 10.18632/oncotarget.15422. PMID: 28430618; PMCID: PMC5464924.

Janik E, Niemcewicz M, Podogrocki M, Ceremuga M, Stela M, Bijak M. T-2 Toxin-The Most Toxic Trichothecene Mycotoxin: Metabolism, Toxicity, and Decontamination Strategies. Molecules. 2021 Nov 14;26(22):6868. doi: 10.3390/molecules26226868. PMID: 34833960; PMCID: PMC8618548.

What does it mean if your T2 Toxin (IgE) result is too high?

What are T-2 Mycotoxins?

T-2 mycotoxins are poisonous substances produced by a number of species of filamentous fungi (molds). They can cause adverse health effects in humans and animals who have gotten the toxin on their skin or eyes, or who have inhaled or ingested the toxin. Exposure to T-2 mycotoxins can occur naturally in certain situations (for example, through accidental ingestion of contaminated foodstuffs). T-2 mycotoxins have also, because of their environmental stability and dissemination potential, been identified as potential agents of bioterrorism. If T-2 mycotoxins were used in a bioterrorism attack, they would most likely be disseminated in the air (i.e., as an aerosol).

How would I get exposed to T-2 Mycotoxin?

T-2 mycotoxins can be absorbed through the skin, or they can be inhaled or ingested.

How long after exposure before I become ill?

Symptoms can begin within minutes to a few hours (2 to 4 hours), depending on the dose and route of exposure.

What are the symptoms?

Symptoms – which vary by the route and duration of exposure, and toxin concentration – may include any of the following:

Skin contact: Burning skin pain, redness and blistering, progressing to patches of skin tissue death and sloughing off of the skin.

Eye contact: Pain, tearing, redness, foreign body sensation, blurred vision.

Inhaled: Nasal pain, itching and bleeding, sneezing, runny nose, mouth and throat pain with blood-tinged saliva, coughing, shortness of breath, wheezing, and blood-tinged sputum.

Ingested: Loss of appetite, nausea, and vomiting, abdominal pain, watery or bloody diarrhea.

Severe poisoning from any route may result in serious systemic symptoms that can include weakness, prostration, dizziness, and loss of coordination. Rapid heart rate, low body temperature, low blood pressure, reduced cardiac (heart) output, and shock can follow in severe or fatal cases. A late effect of systemic absorption of the toxin is a decrease in the numbers of red and white blood cells as well as platelets, potentially leading to bleeding and sepsis.

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