CCL4 (MIP-1beta)

Optimal Result: 0 - 8.63 pg/mL.

CCL4 is a chemoattractant for critical immune regulatory cells such as monocytes/macrophages, T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells.

CCL4 is produced by monocytes, T/B lymphocytes, neutrophils, fibroblasts and endothelial/epithelial cells. CCL4 expression by neutrophils contributes to inflammation by recruiting other leukocytes at site(s) of inflammation which results in resolution of inflammation by macrophage-mediated efferocytosis or development of chronic inflammation.

In addition to metabolic diseases, CCL4 is involved in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, multiple myeloma, psoriasis, cystic fibrosis and sarcoidosis.

Both immune and non-immune cells can express chemokines in response to TNF-α, IL-1β, leukotriene-B4, complement fraction C5a, viruses, bacterial LPS and free fatty acids.

References:

Sindhu S, Kochumon S, Shenouda S, Wilson A, Al-Mulla F, Ahmad R. The Cooperative Induction of CCL4 in Human Monocytic Cells by TNF-α and Palmitate Requires MyD88 and Involves MAPK/NF-κB Signaling Pathways. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 19;20(18):4658. doi: 10.3390/ijms20184658. PMID: 31546972; PMCID: PMC6770648.

What does it mean if your CCL4 (MIP-1beta) result is too high?

Elevated CCL4 levels were reported in obesity and found to be correlated directly with metabolic inflammation. However, mechanisms triggering the CCL4 levels in obesity are poorly understood. It is noteworthy that the increased circulatory levels of free fatty acids in obesity were reported to play a key role in chronic inflammation and insulin resistance.

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