Citric Acid (Citrate)

Optimal Result: 320 - 1240 mg/24 hr.

In a StoneRisk Diagnostic Profile, citric acid is one of the parameters measured to assess an individual's risk of developing kidney stones. Citric acid is a naturally occurring organic acid found in various fruits, particularly citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, and limes. It plays a vital role in kidney stone formation and prevention.

Here's how citric acid is relevant in a stone risk profile:

→ Inhibiting Stone Formation: Citric acid acts as an inhibitor of kidney stone formation. It works by binding to calcium ions in the urine, preventing them from crystallizing and forming solid deposits. This inhibitory effect helps reduce the risk of calcium-based kidney stones, such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones.

→ Maintaining Urine pH: Citric acid contributes to maintaining the urine's pH at a level that discourages the formation of stones. A more acidic urine pH is generally less conducive to stone formation, particularly for certain types of stones.

→ Promoting Solubility: Citric acid increases the solubility of various minerals in urine, making it less likely for minerals to precipitate and form crystals or stones.

A low citric acid level in the urine can indicate a reduced ability to inhibit stone formation, potentially increasing the risk of kidney stone development, especially calcium-based stones. Conversely, higher citric acid levels are generally associated with a lower risk of stone formation.

A stone risk profile typically measures various other parameters as well, including calcium, oxalate, phosphate, uric acid, and more, to provide a comprehensive assessment of an individual's risk for kidney stones. The results of these tests help healthcare providers understand the underlying factors contributing to stone formation and guide preventive strategies and treatments accordingly.


Zuckerman JM, Assimos DG. Hypocitraturia: pathophysiology and medical management. Rev Urol. 2009 Summer;11(3):134-44. PMID: 19918339; PMCID: PMC2777061.

Curhan GC, Taylor EN. 24-h uric acid excretion and the risk of kidney stones. Kidney Int. 2008 Feb;73(4):489-96. doi: 10.1038/ Epub 2007 Dec 5. PMID: 18059457.

Chow K, Dixon J, Gilpin S, Kavanagh JP, Rao PN. Citrate inhibits growth of residual fragments in an in vitro model of calcium oxalate renal stones. Kidney Int. 2004 May;65(5):1724-30. doi: 10.1111/j.1523-1755.2004.00566.x. PMID: 15086911.

Nicar MJ, Skurla C, Sakhaee K, Pak CY. Low urinary citrate excretion in nephrolithiasis. Urology. 1983 Jan;21(1):8-14. doi: 10.1016/0090-4295(83)90113-9. PMID: 6823713.

What does it mean if your Citric Acid (Citrate) result is too low?

Low urinary citrate excretion is a known risk factor for the development of kidney stones. Hypocitraturia, generally defined as urinary citrate excretion less than 320 mg (1.67 mmol) per day for adults, is a common metabolic abnormality in stone formers, occurring in 20% to 60%.

A low citric acid (citrate) level in a Stone Risk profile urine test can have several implications, especially in the context of kidney stone formation. Citric acid plays a crucial role in preventing the formation of certain types of kidney stones. Here's what a low citric acid level might indicate:

→ Increased Risk of Kidney Stones: Citric acid is a natural inhibitor of kidney stone formation. It helps prevent the crystallization of calcium salts (such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate), which are the primary components of most kidney stones. When citric acid levels are low, the risk of these types of stones forming increases.

→ Altered pH Levels: Citric acid also contributes to maintaining the urine's pH at a level that discourages the formation of stones. Low citric acid levels may lead to a more alkaline urine pH, which can facilitate the precipitation of certain minerals and promote stone formation.

→ Underlying Medical Conditions: Low citric acid levels can be associated with certain medical conditions, such as metabolic disorders, renal tubular acidosis, or malabsorption syndromes. Identifying the underlying cause of low citric acid levels may be important for addressing kidney stone risk.

→ Diet and Hydration: Dietary factors can influence citric acid levels in the urine. Low citric acid levels may be related to inadequate consumption of citric acid-containing foods (e.g., citrus fruits) or insufficient fluid intake. Dietary modifications and increased hydration may be recommended.

→ Medications: Some medications can affect citric acid levels in the urine. Certain medications, such as potassium citrate, are sometimes prescribed to increase citric acid levels in individuals at risk of kidney stones.

Note: It's essential to interpret the results of a stone risk profile urine test in consultation with a healthcare provider, as they can consider your medical history, symptoms, and other factors to provide a more accurate assessment of your kidney stone risk and guide appropriate management. If you have concerns about your citric acid levels or kidney stone risk, please consult with a healthcare professional for personalized advice and treatment options.



Frequently asked questions

Unlock Your Health Journey with! Ever wished for a one-stop digital health haven for all your lab tests? Look no further! is your personalized health dashboard, bringing together test reports from any lab. Say goodbye to scattered results—organize and centralize your lab data effortlessly. Dive into the details of each biomarker and gain insights into the meaning behind your medical test data.

Join the community of thousands who've transformed the way they understand their lab results. Experience the joy of having all your lab data neatly organized, regardless of where or when the tests were done.

For our professional users, is a game-changer. Revel in the intuitive tools that not only streamline analysis but also save valuable time when delving into your client's lab report history. It's not just a dashboard; it's your gateway to a smarter, more informed health journey! personal account provides in-depth research on 4000+ biomarkers, including information and suggestions for test panels such as, but not limited to:

  • The GI Effects® Comprehensive Stool Profile,
  • GI-MAP,
  • The NutrEval FMV®,
  • The ION Profile,
  • Amino Acids Profile,
  • Dried Urine Test for Comprehensive Hormones (DUTCH),
  • Organic Acids Test,
  • Organix Comprehensive Profile,
  • Toxic Metals,
  • Complete Blood Count (CBC),
  • Metabolic panel,
  • Thyroid panel,
  • Lipid Panel,
  • Urinalysis,
  • And many, many more.

You can combine all test reports inside your Healthmatters account and keep them in one place. It gives you an excellent overview of all your health data. Once you retest, you can add new results and compare them.

If you are still determining whether Healthmatters support your lab results, the rule is that if you can test it, you can upload it to Healthmatters.

While we do talk about popular labs, we welcome reports from lots of other places too. It's as simple as this: if you can get a test done, you can upload it to Healthmatters. We can interpret results from any lab out there. If laboratories can analyze it, we can interpret it.

Still on the hunt for a specific biomarker? Just tell us, and we'll add it to our database. Anything from blood, urine, saliva, or stool can be uploaded, understood, and tracked with your Healthmatters account!

There are two ways to add your test reports to your account. One option is to input the data using the data entry forms. The other method is to utilize our "Data entry service."

Our data entry forms offer an easy, fast, and free way for you to input the reports yourself. Self-entry allows you to add an unlimited number of reports at no cost. We make the self-entry process user-friendly, providing dozens of templates that pre-populate the most popular laboratory panels and offering instant feedback on entered values.

For those who prefer assistance, we offer a "Data entry service" to help you input your data. Simply attach an image or file of your lab test results, and a qualified team member from our data entry team will add the results for you. We support various file types, including PDFs, JPGs, or Excel. This service is particularly useful if you have many reports to upload or if you're too busy to handle the data entry yourself.

Our special data entry service makes it easy to add your results to your private dashboard. Just attach an image or a file of your lab test results, and our skilled data entry team will do the work for you. It's all done by humans, ensuring that your data is entered accurately and with personal care for each client.

Depending on your account, the data entry service can be included for free or come at an additional cost of $15 per report.

For users on the Complete monthly plan, the first report is entered free of charge, and each additional report incurs a fee of $15.

Unlimited account holders enjoy the entry of ten reports without charge. Subsequent reports are subject to a $15 fee per report.

Additionally, users on the Complete plan can upgrade to a yearly subscription from the account settings. The annual subscription includes a data entry service for five reports.

The Unlimited plan is a one-time purchase for $250, and it covers your account for a lifetime with no additional payments.

For the Complete plan, the cost is $15 per month. You have the flexibility to cancel it anytime through your account settings, ensuring no further payments. To avoid charges, remember to cancel at least a day before the renewal date. Once canceled, the subscription remains active until the end of the current billing cycle.

Additionally, you can upgrade to the yearly Advanced plan from within your account. The annual cost is $79, and it comes with a data entry service for five reports.

You can always upgrade to a lifetime version with a prorated price from a monthly or yearly subscription.

Simply log in and navigate to your account settings to cancel your subscription. Scroll down to locate the 'Cancel' button at the bottom of the page. Ensure you cancel at least one day before the renewal date to prevent any charges. Once cancellation is requested, the subscription remains active until the conclusion of the current billing cycle.

Unlocking the insights from your lab tests has never been this intuitive! We've crafted multiple ways for you to navigate your data, whether you're glancing at a single report or delving into a treasure trove of testing data.

1. Graph View:

Dive into a visual journey with our biomarker graphs, showcasing over 40 data points. Combining years of results unveils trends, empowering you to make informed decisions. Our visualization tools make it a breeze to compare and understand changes over time, even if your results are from different labs. A search function and filters simplify the exploration of extensive data, allowing you to focus on what needs attention.

2. All Tests View

Get a quick grasp of your test reports in minutes! Explore neatly organized reports on a timeline, highlighting crucial details like dates, critical results, and lab/panel names. Each report opens up to reveal in-depth descriptions and additional recommendations for each biomarker. The history of previous results is just a click away, and you can download a comprehensive report for deeper insights. Color-coded and user-friendly, it's designed for easy reading, understanding, and navigation.

3. Table View:

For a holistic view of all biomarkers side by side, our table view is your go-to. Results are neatly displayed in a categorized and dated table, ideal for those with an extensive test history. Utilize sorting, filters, and color-coding to enhance your analysis and gain extra insights.

Experience the power of clear, organized data visualization with — your key to understanding and taking charge of your health journey!

Yes, you can download information from your account. We can compile your labs into a CSV file. To download all your labs, you can go to Account Settings, and at the bottom of the page, you will find a link to download your information.

Yes, you can print your report. To do so, navigate to "All tests" and open the report you wish to print. You'll find a print button in the right corner of the report. Click on it, and your browser's print window will open. If you prefer to print in a bigger typeface, adjust the scale using the print window settings.

A personal account is all about keeping your own lab test results in check. It's just for you and your personal use.

The professional or business account is designed for health professionals who wish to track and organize their clients' laboratory results.

Use promo code to save 10% off any plan.

We implement proven measures to keep your data safe.

At HealthMatters, we're committed to maintaining the security and confidentiality of your personal information. We've put industry-leading security standards in place to help protect against the loss, misuse, or alteration of the information under our control. We use procedural, physical, and electronic security methods designed to prevent unauthorized people from getting access to this information. Our internal code of conduct adds additional privacy protection. All data is backed up multiple times a day and encrypted using SSL certificates. See our Privacy Policy for more details.