Deficiency Symptoms: Deficiency in manganese is rare, but it is now estimated that up to 20% of the population may be deficient in manganese caused by improper diet and eating habits. Deficiency in manganese may lead to various health problems which could include bone malformation, eye and hearing problems, increased cholesterol, hypertension, infertility, cardiovascular issues, memory loss, hearing loss, muscle cramping and tremors. Other deficiency symptoms may include ataxia, fainting and carbohydrate intolerance (diabetes). Manganese deficiency has also been linked to myasthenia gravis. Manganese Toxicity: Symptoms of manganese toxicity mimic those of Parkinson’s disease with permanent neurological damage. It may also precipitate hypertension in patients over 40, and significant rises in manganese are found in patients with hepatitis, cirrhosis and in dialysis patients and victims of heart attack. Early signs of toxicity include loss of appetite, impaired memory, and mask-like facial expressions. Excess manganese will reduce iron absorption.
Repletion Information: Estimated average dietary manganese intakes range from 2.0 to 3.0 mg/day for men and 1.6-1.8 mg/day for women.
People eating vegetarian diets may have higher intakes. Rich sources of manganese include whole grains, nuts, leafy vegetables, pineapple and teas. Foods high in phytic acid or oxalic acid may reduce manganese absorption.
The RDA for adults is 2.5-5.0 mg/day. Patients with chronic liver disease and iron-deficiency are at increased risk for toxicity and manganese deposition in the brain.
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